ISRO: Indian Space Research Organization
ISRO Full Form is an Indian Space Research Organization. It was formed in 1969 with the mission of providing space-based services and developing the technologies necessary to support them. Over the years, ISRO has grown into one of the largest space agencies (out of the 6 agencies) in the world. It sends various satellites to the Low Earth Orbit, as well as the Sun Synchronous Orbit, including weather forecast satellites and communication satellites.
Apart from this mission, ISRO has contributed to space science education in India. There are several autonomous institutions and research centers dedicated to astrophysics, astronomy, remote sensing, and various aspects of space science.
ISRO strives to maintain advanced technology to meet the nation’s changing ambitions. India has come a long way in the field of science and technology and it is all due to the efforts made by ancient scientists like Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, Prof. Satish Dhawan and many others. It is everyone’s dream to reach the stars, and these scientists made it come true thanks to their perseverance and foresight.
ISRO Full Form – Additional Information
ISRO or the Indian Space Research Organization is administered by the Space Department of the Government of India. Here, all space-related research activities are carried out with a focus on harnessing universal energy for the betterment of the nation. Space programs are arranged to send satellites into space so that they can be used to transmit signals and aid in communication.
The Space Department reports to the Prime Minister of India and governs it with the help of the Space Commission. The Space Department has 5 facilities: Physics Research Laboratory (PRL), Northeast Space Applications Center (NE-SAC), National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) and Laboratory of Semiconductors. (SCL). These, together with Antrix Corporation, constitute the Indian Space Research Organization or ISRO. There are many sub-branches of the organization and they are:
Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC), Space Application Center (SAC), ISRO Satellite Center (ISAC), Liquid Propulsion Systems Center (LPSC), National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) and Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC-SHAR). These different centers have various activities carried out in specialized areas. They are:
Educational Communication and Development Unit (DECU), ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Master Control Facility (MCF), ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU), Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory (LEOS) and ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC).
LOCATIONS AND FACILITIES IN DIFFERENT CENTERS
In general, ISRO centers are spread over 23 cities in India. Some places have more than one center for different research activities. However, ISRO’s headquarters are located in Bangalore. The locations and centers are as follows:
Name of City No. of Centres Facility
CHANDIGARH 1 SEMI-CONDUCTOR LABORATORY (SCL)
JODHPUR 1 WESTERN RRSC
UDAIPUR 1 SOLAR OBSERVATORY
AHMEDABAD 3 1. Space Applications Centre (SAC)
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU)
ABU 1 INFRARED OBSERVATORY
BHOPAL 1 MASTER CONTROL FACILITY -B (MCF)
MUMBAI 1 ISRO LIAISON OFFICE
BYALALU 2 1. Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN)
2- Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC)
HASSAN 1 MASTER CONTROL FACILITY (MCF)
BENGALURU 11 Space Commission
Department of Space and ISRO Headquarters
INSAT Programme Office
Civil Engineering Programme Office
ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC)
Laboratory for Electro-Optical Systems (LEOS)
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC)
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC)
ALUVA 1 AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE EXPERIMENTAL PLANT
NEW DELHI 3 DOS Branch Secretariat
ISRO Branch Office
Delhi Earth Station
DEHRADUN 2 1. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)
2- Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia-Pacific
LUCKNOW 1 ISTRAC GROUND STATION
KOLKATA 1 EASTERN RRSC
SHILLONG 1 NORTH-EASTERN SPACE APPLICATION CENTRE (NE-SAC)
NAGPUR 1 CENTRAL RRSC
HYDERABAD 1 NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING CENTRE (NRSC)
TIRUPATI 1 NATIONAL ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH LABORATORY (NARL)
PORT BLAIR 1 DOWN RANGE STATION
SRIHARIKOTA 1 SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTRE (SDSC-SHAR)
MAHENDRAGIRI 1 ISRO PROPULSION COMPLEX
THIRUVANTHAPURAM 4 Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC)
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU)
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST)
FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRES
The Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC) is the important center of ISRO, as the research and development activities related to satellite launch vehicles and rockets are carried out here. The design of the launch vehicle, thrusters, aerospace mechanisms and other related programs are carried out at the center. The Space Physics Laboratory is responsible for studies of atmospheric science and space-related movements.
100 km north of Chennai, in Sriharikota, is the Satish Dhawan Space Center. This is where there are 2 launch pads and it is the main launch center for ISRO. ISAC located in Bengaluru has activities such as the development of satellite technology and the application of satellite systems for technological and scientific operations. ISTRAC provides services related to space operations and includes services and projects for launch vehicles and spacecraft in Earth orbit, as well as spacecraft control. The center also assists in deep space missions conducted by ISRO and other global space agencies.
IIST offers undergraduate studies in aerospace engineering, avionics, and physical sciences. It also offers postgraduate and doctoral degrees. courses in technology, space sciences and their applications. IIRS expands training, education and research facilities in geoinformation, remote sensing, navigation technology and various applications. Similarly, the other centers also offer various learning facilities related to space technology and satellite communications.
ISRO APPLICATIONS AND MISSIONS
ISRO had undertaken a mission in orbit to Mars where they studied the planet for its characteristics, atmosphere, mineralogy, etc. By sending satellites into space, one can capture images of the Earth and that can help to study geographic changes, weather, environment, etc. Satellite communication has allowed people in the most remote areas to keep in touch with other people.
There are two major equipped systems in use: India’s National Satellite (INSAT), which is widely used for monitoring climate change, telecommunications, and broadcasting of television programs. The second system is Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) which takes care of natural resource management and supports disaster management. The IRS is important in Earth observation as it helps in urban planning, forest control and maintenance of natural resources, locating agricultural land and its nearby water resources, etc.
INSAT images of the Earth and its surroundings are vital for the meteorological laboratory to be able to predict the weather and place the forecast for the near future. INSAT has also allowed television coverage to be broadcast to be available to the masses living in remote areas and villages. DTH (Direct to Home) services, Internet, etc. are other advantages of the satellite. GSAT-16 is an advanced communications satellite orbiting the Earth. It has an orbital life of 12 years and was launched in December 2014.
IMPORTANCE OF ISRO
India is recognized worldwide as a progressive and rapidly developing country. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is definitely helping to boost the country’s image and putting the nation on a par with other large countries like the US, Russia, etc., which have already demonstrated tremendous progress in space technology.
Communication is the key to progress and success and this satellite communication system definitely improves audio and video transmission. Besides communication, entertainment also plays an important role in life. Thus, television broadcasting that reaches almost every corner of the Earth surely entertains and educates people at the same time with informative and enriching programs.
This is the age of competition and progress, and today you can’t even think about life without the Internet. The Internet is a powerful medium that not only reaches many people simultaneously but also a medium that brings the world closer in thoughts and actions. It is certainly a feeling of pride that we Indians are sending our indigenous satellites and spacecraft into space. This shows that we too are capable of achieving a foothold in outer space and its related world and we owe it all to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).