RAW Full Form Name: Research and Analysis Wing
RAW Full Form is Research and Analysis Wing. RAW is an Indian intelligence agency Established in 1968. RAW’s main objective was to counter the influence of China, which eventually changed the focus on Pakistan. Since its inception, RAW has expanded its authority on the subcontinent. India’s influence abroad is said to have greatly increased.
The policies and role of RAW have varied under various prime ministers. RAW is also said to have contributed to (1) the formation of Bangladesh, (2) India’s influence over Afghanistan, (3) India’s nuclear program and its security, (4) a successful African liberation movement during the cold war, etc. RAW’s goals include monitoring military and political developments in neighboring nations.
RAW Full Form – Additional Information
Anyone in India would be familiar with the Investigation and Analysis Wing, which is basically the main foreign intelligence organization in the country, primarily engaged in the collection and analysis of foreign intelligence. The agency was founded in 1968.
The objective behind the establishment of the agency was to prevent failures that arose due to the Indo-Pak wars and the Sino-Indian war, which highlighted many glitches and intelligence failures. The failures forced the then government of India to create an advanced and independent agency that will effectively carry out the task of gathering foreign intelligence and prevent such tragedies, which could have been avoided.
The main functions of the agency, as already mentioned in the previous paragraph, are the collection of foreign intelligence, the fight against terrorism and the promotion of the fight against proliferation. In addition to these, the agency actively participates in the country’s nuclear program and provides advice to the country’s policy makers. RAW is one of the most recognized intelligence agencies in the country and is considered essential by many foreign jurisdictions. This is the face of India’s national power.
The agency is based in the country’s capital city, New Delhi. When it comes to agency information, it is different from that of the United States of America and the United Kingdom. In India, the agency reports directly to the Prime Minister, not the Ministry of Defense. The aforementioned paragraphs highlight only some of the introductory aspects of RAW and therefore more needs to be explored about this organization, which defines its existence and relevance inside and outside India. Here are five facts about RAW that you should know:
History behind the establishment of RAW
Prior to the founding of the RAW, the responsibility for collecting foreign intelligence and analyzing it rested with the Intelligence Bureau (abbreviated as IB). Eventually, however, the powers and scope of IB’s reach increased. After independence, the IB began to show problems in handling foreign intelligence, as it was assigned other responsibilities. This ultimately led to the Indo-Pak and Sino-India debacles, which were mainly a consequence of intelligence failures on the part of Indian agencies.
During the Indira Gandhi regime, the decision was made to establish an independent agency charged with collecting and analyzing foreign intelligence. The agency began operations as part of the Intelligence Office, with about 250 employees. Over time, the agency became independent and began creating children’s agencies such as Electronics & Tech Services and The Radio Research Center. In 2004, another agency came under the control of RAW, the National Technical Facilities Organization (abbreviated as NTFO). The name of this agency was later changed to the National Technical Research Organization (NTRO). The exact nature of NTRO’s operations is unclear.
The Joint Intelligence Committee (abbreviated JIC) was established for the purpose of coordinating activities between the Office of Intelligence, the Defense Intelligence Agency (abbreviated DIA), and the RAW. The effectiveness of JIC is not certain and has received mixed reviews. Even RAW’s status is also unusual in that it is a wing, not the agency, of the Cabinet Secretary. It is for this reason that RAW is not covered by the Right to Information Law, 2005 vide section 24, which is read with Annex II of the same Law. This has given rise to many controversies, as it is often accused to RAW from hiding information related to human rights abuse and corruption etc.
Objectives of RAW: RAW Full Form
The following are some of the objectives of RAW:
It aims to monitor military, political, economic and scientific developments in many countries that are critical to the country’s national security.
Assist policymakers in formulating an effective, viable, and robust foreign policy.
Organize secret missions for the purpose of gathering foreign intelligence.
To carry out anti-terrorist operations.
However, RAW’s main goal remains to prevent any tragedies such as the Indo-Pak and Sino-Indo wars, which exposed the weak side of India’s intelligence, from happening.
Recruitment in RAW
RAW previously recruited directly into their organization. These people came from the Intelligence Bureau, Police, Army and Revenue Services of India (abbreviated as IRS). Eventually, RAW began hiring staff from various universities. This exposed the growing nepotism, which forced the organization to create a service cadre, known as the Research and Analysis Service (abbreviated as RAS), to hire people from the Civil Service of Group A of the Central Staffing Scheme. There is direct recruitment of civil servants, who are taking basic courses at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration. When the course ends, an interview follows. There is also recruitment by a delegation from the Armed Forces or the Public Administration of Group A.
Training in RAW
RAW is an important body for national security and therefore has a rigorous training framework. Basic training begins with a ten-day phase in which the inducted will be introduced to the world of espionage and intelligence, with particular emphasis on breaking down the fictional stereotypes that prevail about espionage and intelligence. This is followed by lessons on the classification of intelligence information, business techniques, economic analysis, information security, scientific information, space technology, and energy security.
New members receive lessons on foreign languages and geostrategic analysis. Along with these lessons, participants receive case studies on prominent international investigative agencies like Mossad, MI6, CIA, etc. Basic classroom lessons are taught at the Language and Training Institute located in Gurgaon. After completing basic training, new members are assigned a Field Intelligence Office (FIB).
The training would generally last one or two years. During this period, the inducted receives lessons on secret missions and cold drills, night drills, exfiltration, infiltration, interrogation, etc. Many other skills are taught that are essential for a RAW agent. At the Indian Military Academy in Dehradun, new members receive field training. The training framework is subject to much criticism for being outdated and police-centric.
Operations performed by RAW
RAW is known for running some of the most important operations at home and abroad. Some of them are listed below:
Operation Smiling Buddha: This is the name given to the Nuclear program of India. It is the first operation in which RAW was performed in India.
Operation Lal Dora: The name was given to the operation when Mauritian Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth sought the help of then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on the eve of a Berenger coup.
Operation Cactus: In 1988, the invasion of the Maldives by the People’s Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (abbreviated as PLOTE) occurred. At the request of Muamoon Gayoom, the then president of the Maldives, RAW was hired to provide assistance.
Kargil War: RAW participated during the Kargil War and received a lot of criticism. RAW was unable to gather adequate intelligence that could have stalled the Kargil War. The operations greatly tarnished the agency’s image.