Full Form of CBI: Central Bureau of Investigation
CBI Full Form is Central Bureau of Investigation. CBI is a premier investigative agency in India that is characterized as an elite organization that is tasked with handling key issues related to the nation’s police system and economy. The organization comes under the jurisdiction of the Government of India.
The agency is dedicated to investigating criminal matters and is considered the Interpol of the country. The agency was established in 1941 under the name of the Special Police Establishment and was originally in charge of national security. In 1963, the name of the organization was changed to Central Bureau of Investigation. The agency’s motto is “Industry, Fairness, Integrity.”
The agency is based in the country’s capital city, New Delhi, but has established several field offices located in major cities in the country. The Personnel and Training Department of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Complaints and Pensions, under the auspices of the Union Minister of the Government of India, is the supervisory authority of the IWC. The agency submits a report directly to the Prime Minister of India.
CBI is considered to be based on the main investigative agency of the United States of America, the Federal Bureau of America (abbreviated as FBI). The functions and powers of the IWC are restricted within the limits prescribed in various laws, notably the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946. The agency is currently IPS Subodh Kumar Jaiswal has been appointed as the Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) for a period of 2 years.
Now that we have briefly touched on the introductory aspects of the CBI, it is important to explore some other facets of it, which will give a clearer picture of CBI is one of the largest investigative agencies in the country. Here are five things to know about CBI:
History behind the development of CBI : CBI Full Form
The CBI has its historical origins in the Delhi Special Police Establishment, which was established in 1941. The functions performed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment concerned the investigation of cases related to corruption and bribery in the War and Supplies Department of the then Government of India.
The establishment was founded during World War II and was based in Lahore. Khan Bahadur Qurban Ali Khan was the superintendent of the settlement. With the aim of providing a well-founded framework for an investigative agency, the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946 was enacted, eventually giving rise to CBI. In 1963, the establishment was renamed the Indian Headquarters through a resolution passed by the then Home Office.
CBI started out with a limited scope, but thanks to the efforts of the country’s judicial courts, CBI’s scope has been expanded to cover areas such as kidnapping, murder, and terrorism. In 1987, the agency was renewed and divided into two separate divisions, namely: the Special Crimes Division and the Anti-Corruption Division. D.P. Kohli, a former inspector general of police, was the visionary of the CBI and has envisioned an independent and credible investigative agency on par with international investigative agencies.
Organizational structure of the IWC
The organizational structure of the IWC needs adequate clarification. The organization is made up of a Director, who directs the agency; and an IPS officer who belongs to the rank of Director General of Police. The agency director is appointed on the basis of the Central Oversight Commission Act 2003 and the term is two years.
The organization is comprised of IPS and IRS officers, which include the Special Director, the Deputy Inspector General of Police, the Additional Director, the Superintendent of Police, the Senior Superintendent of Police, the Deputy Superintendent of Police, the Additional Superintendent of Police. , the Chief of Police, etc.
These are all appointed through the SSC exam or delegation from the IT department or the police. The powers and functions of the IWC are under the control of three ministries and 2 constitutional bodies, namely: the Ministry of Law and Justice, the Ministry of the Interior, the DoPT, the Union Public Services Commission and, finally, the Central Monitoring Commission.
Selection committee of CBI
The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 was amended to allow for the establishment of a selection committee, which will be responsible for appointing the director of the IWC. The following people make up the IWC: the Prime Minister, who is the chair of the committee; Leader of the Opposition, who is a member of the committee; and the Chief Justice of the Indian Supreme Court or any Supreme Court Justice recommended by the Chief Justice of India as a member of the committee.
In appointing the new director, due weight is given to the opinion of the outgoing director. Prior to the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act of 2013, by virtue of which the aforementioned selection committee is constituted, the Central Oversight Commissioner was empowered to appoint the director.
Jurisdiction and powers of the IWC
The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946 is the instrumental promulgation from which the IWC derives its functions, powers, duties and jurisdiction. The central government is empowered to expand or restrict the powers and functions of the IWC. Under the aforementioned Law, the CBI is empowered to conduct an investigation only when the central government gives notice.
The CBI may carry out an investigation in matters related to alleged crimes against Union Government employees; matters related to financial matters of the Government of the Union; matters related to embezzlement in Union services, international cases, etc. The judicial courts of the country, the High Courts and the Supreme Court of India, are empowered to order the agency to carry out an investigation of crimes committed against the State. However, the court cautioned that the exercise of this power is extraordinary in nature and should be used when urgently needed.
CBI’s scandalous history
The IWC was conceptualized with the noble objective of protecting the interests of the state. However, the agency has been embroiled in various controversies that have greatly tarnished the agency’s reputation. The move is such that the judiciary is stressing the agency’s independence from executive oversight. The agency is extremely susceptible to political interference and this is palpable in many cases that have arisen in the recent past.
In 2006, the Bofors scandal broke out and caused quite a stir. In this scandal, the accounts of Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi were found to have been surreptitiously unfrozen. Ottaviao was one of the main defendants in the 1986 Bofors scandal during the Rajiv Gandhi regime. The problem was that the CBI was the main investigating agency. The scandal was a stain on the country’s main agency.
The infamous Priyadarshini Mattoo case in which the defendant allegedly murdered a law student and was ultimately acquitted. The case highlighted willful inaction on the part of the IWC. The case sparked great public outrage due to the indecision and palpable incompetence of the IWC.
In the 2G spectrum scam, the CBI came under fire when it failed to conduct an investigation in an expeditious manner. The Supreme Court criticized CBI’s belated attitude in this regard. In this scam, the 2G specters were assigned to the corporation at low prices through corrupt practices. Thus, CBI has failed to fulfill many of its noble duties effectively and has attracted much negative publicity from the public.