Full Form of Computer
Computer: common operating machine expressly used for technological and educational research
COMPUTER full form is a common operating machine specially used for trade, education and research. Technically speaking, the term computer does not have a complete form. The computer is essentially derived from the word “calculate”, which basically means “calculate”. However, there is a hypothetical complete form of COMPUTER, which is said to be a commonly operated machine specially used for commerce, education and research.
What is COMPUTER?
It is a device that can be programmed to do a set of logical or arithmetic operations. Programs are a set of instructions that enable them to execute the operations. In simple words, the computer receives information or data, performs certain operations according to the program, and gives the result to the user as an output. Let us explore more about COMPUTER Full Form.
Types of COMPUTER:
Fallowing type of Computers:-
Microcomputers are of various types, including laptops, tablets, personal digital assistants, smartphones, and desktop computers. Microcomputers are the least expensive of all types of computers. These are meant for entertainment, education, and other general purposes.
Notebook Computer example is Laptop, Laptops are easy to transport and are widely used by people who want to use a computer on the go. Due to the size of a notebook computer being equal to a notebook, it got its name as a Notebook computer. Notebook computers are light in weight and can be carried easily anywhere and easily kept inside a bags.
They are powered by chargeable batteries which make them be used in places that have no power points. Notebook computers typically run on the Windows operating system or MS-DOS and they are useful for making presentations, spreadsheet computing, and word processing. Popular companies that manufacture notebook computers include; IBM, Siemens, Compaq, Toshiba, etc.
Personal computers are general-purpose machines that people use to meet their personal computing needs. They are generally not portable in nature and are kept on a study table/computer table in homes or workplaces. Personal computers run on LINUX, MS-DOS, and MS-Windows operating systems. These operating systems help users to do multitasking. The world’s Top personal computer manufactures are Dell, Apple, IBM, Lenovo, Compaq, Siemens, Zenith, HP (Hewlett-Packard), and Toshiba.
Small and medium-sized businesses use minicomputers (also called mid-range computers). It can support hundreds of users simultaneously. Mini Computers are also called as mainframe computers.
Mainframe Computers are used by institutions like banks, hospitals, insurance companies, etc which need to store data of the customers and process a huge number of transactions. Mainframe computers offer massive data storage facilities and can process data in real-time. Mainframe computers are also used in places where many users should share a computer system, such as in engineering companies and educational institutions. Most government organizations are also using mainframe computers as many users can use these computers simultaneously.
Typically a mainframe system will have a host computer that is accompanied by a front end computer with a back-end computer, magnetic disk drives; console terminals, tape drives, user terminals, plotters, and printers. Mainframe Computer also runs on a variation of the UNIX or proprietary operating system. IBM and DEC mainframes are the world’s leading companies making mainframe computers.
Supercomputers are the most powerful computers when it comes to performance and data processing. The supercomputer is very expensive and large organizations use it for specific purposes. Typically there are used for processing very complex scientific data that need high processing power.
Uses of Super Computers:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses supercomputers for space exploration and deep space navigation.
The petroleum industries use supercomputers to analyze a large amount of seismic data collected during maturities to identify places on earth where petroleum products are abundantly available.
Aerospace industries are using supercomputers for simulating airflow around aircraft which is done at different altitudes and at different speeds. This is done to ensure the effective aerodynamic design and developing aircraft which can perform better.
The automotive industries are using supercomputers to simulate vehicle accidents before they go to manufacture. Crash simulation is less expensive than using the actual vehicle to crash and then conducting a study on it.
The meteorological industries are also using supercomputers for the purpose of forecasting the weather. Data collected by satellites are sent to supercomputers for analysis and complex mathematical equations are solved using supercomputers.
Full Form of Computer – Additional Information
Parts of a Computer:
A computer consists of the following parts:
It is a part of a computer that accommodates all the other components such as Processors, expansion cards, memory modules, and external drives.
The processor of a computer is nothing but the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The processor is an electronic circuit in the computer which executes the instructions provided by the programs. The processor is the brain of a computer and it is often called a Microprocessor.
Memory is of two types namely RAM and ROM.
RAM: Random Access Memory is a temporary memory which means the data stored in the memory is accessible as long as the computer is ON. Once the computer is switched off the data stored in the RAM will be erased. Modern computers use RAM in the range of 4 GB – 16 GB based on the need and purpose of computing.
ROM: Read Only Memory is a kind of permanent memory. As soon as the computer is switched on, the booting instructions which are stored in the ROM start executing. Information stored in ROM is basically for reading only. However, modifications can also be done with EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory).
It is the permanent memory of a computer which means the data stored in the hard disk is available even when the computer is switched off. Hard disks come with a capacity of 500 GB – 1000 GB.
Basic Units of a COMPUTER:
A computer consists of the following basic units:
An input unit is one which links the computer with the external environment. It receives instructions/data from the user, converts these instructions to a form that the computer can understand (binary form), and supplies it to the computer for further processing. Examples of input devices include; Keyboards, scanners, etc.
Computers work with data in the binary form and the output from a computer will also be in the binary form. Before the processed data is supplied to the user, it needs to be converted into a human-readable form. The output unit is the one that does this job. It takes the result produced by the computer, converts the result (which is in binary coded form) to human readable form and supplies that result to the user.
Arithmetic and Logic Unit:
ALU or the Arithmetic and Logic Unit is the one that does all the arithmetic and logical operations of a computer. Data stored in the primary memory of a computer is transferred to the ALU, as and when it is needed, and the results are again transferred to the primary memory. All the computers, irrespective of the configuration and design, can perform the basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division as well as the logical operations like less than, greater than, equal to, etc.
It is often called as the nervous system of a computer. It coordinates and manages the entire computer. The control unit of a computer will not perform any processing on the given data. It only acts as a coordinator. It receives instructions from the stored program, does the interpretation of those instructions, and then issues signals to other components of the computer to execute those instructions. This is why the control unit (CU) is called the “nervous system of the computer”.
Central Processing Unit:
CPU is called as the brain of a computer. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) and control unit of a computer jointly called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). In a human body, the brain takes all the decisions. Other parts of the body just do what the brain instructs them to do. Similarly, in a computer, the CPU takes all the major decisions and calculations are done in the CPU. As CPU controls the functions of other units of a computer, it is called the “brain of a computer”.
Basic Operations performed by a Computer:
Irrespective of the size, shape, and power of computing, all the computers perform the following operations.
Inputting: It is the process of entering the program into a computer
Storing: It is the process of storing programs, data, and instructions.
Processing: It is nothing but performing arithmetic and logical operations on the given data.
Outputting: It is the process of given the results to the end user.
Controlling: It is the processing of directing the execution of the above-mentioned operations.
FULL FORM OF COMPUTER
Advantages of Computers:
Computers are automatic machines
Computers are automatic in nature. They can carry out the assigned work without human assistance. All that a computer needs from a human is the program. Once you feed the computer with the required program to perform a specific task, the computer will take care of the rest of the activities without human intervention.
Computers operate at high speed
Computers have a very high speed. The speed of a computer is in the range of microseconds (10 to the power of minus 6), the nanoseconds (10 to the power of minus 9), and even the picoseconds (10 to the power of minus 12). Computers can perform millions of arithmetic and logical operations per second. A computer can do in a few microseconds, the volume of work that you would take years to complete.
Computers are very accurate
The accuracy level of a computer is normally very high. Computers will not commit errors themselves. If at all you find any error in the output from a computer, it would be because of the error in the program or instruction that is given to the computer.
Computers have a high degree of diligence
Computers do not have tiredness, monotony, or lack of concentration. It can work continuously for hours together without complaining. They can perform routine jobs with the greatest accuracy all the time. If a computer has to perform the billionth calculation, it will do so with the same degree of accuracy and speed with which it performed the first calculation.
Disadvantages of computers:
Computers have no I.Q (Intelligent Quotient). They can’t take decisions on their own. It simply does what it is asked to do. You should tell the computer what exactly you want it to do through your program. This cannot be construed as a disadvantage though. In recent years, attempts have been made to build computers with artificial intelligence.
The Evolution of Computers:
The following are the few key points about the evolution of computers.
The first machine which could do addition was invented by Blaise Pascal in the year 1642.
The first calculator which can do multiplication was invented by Baron Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz in the year 1671.
Punched card concept was introduced by Herman Hollerith in late 1970s
The keyboard machine came into existence in the United States of America in the year 1880.
The “Difference Engine” which can prepare mathematically as well as statistical tables were invented by Charles Babbage in the year 1822. Charles Babbage is the father of digital computers.
Later in the year 1842, Charles Babbage invented “Analytical Engine” which can prepare the tables completely automatic.
A fully automatic calculating device called “Mark I Computer” or “Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator” was designed by Howard A. Aiken from 1937-1944. He had designed this machine in collaboration with the International Business Machine (IBM).
The Electronic machine to solve mathematical equations was invented by Dr. John Atanasoff and his deputy Clifford Berry. It was named in honor of them as “Atanasoff – Berry Computer”.
The first-ever all-electronic computer ENIAC (expanded as Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was constructed at the University of Pennsylvania of the USA by a design team that was lead by Professor J. Presper Eckert and his colleague John Mauchly during 1943-1946. It was originally developed for military purposes and used for solving ballistic problems.
The first-ever computer built on the “Stored Program” concept was developed during 1946-1952. This concept was introduced by Dr. John Von Neumann. Earlier versions including ENIAC had programs wired on boards which were very difficult to modify or change. This problem was eliminated with the help of EDVAC (expanded as Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer). In EDVAC, programs were stored in the memory of the computer which could be easily modified or changed.
A computer that could perform additional operations in about 1500 microseconds and multiplication operation in about 4000 microseconds was build at the Cambridge University Mathematical Lab during 1947-1949. The machine named as EDSAC (expanded as Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was developed by a group of scientists led by Professor Maurice Wilkes.
The first digital computer UNIVAC I (expanded as Universal Automatic Computer) was built in the year 1951. Subsequently, in 1952, IBM introduced 701 commercial computers. Later in the year 1953, IBM introduced IBM-650. Thus, commercially available digital computers had arrived.
Summary of Computer Generations:
Generation is a computer terminology used to describe the growth of the computer industry in general. The following are the various generations of computers.
First Generation of Computers:
The time period of the First Generation:
1940 – 1956
Key hardware technologies developed during the first generation:
Vacuum tubes, punched cards, electromagnetic relay memories, and secondary storage.
Key software technologies developed during the first generation:
Machine and assembly languages and stored program concept. The computers built during the first generation were mostly used for scientific applications.
Key characteristics of first-generation computers:
The computers built during 1940-1956 were bulky in size, costly to produce, highly unreliable, and had limited commercial use.
Second Generation of Computers:
The time period of the second generation:
1956 – 1964
Key hardware technologies developed during the second generation:
Transistors, magnetic tapes, magnetic core memory, and disks
Key software technologies developed during the second generation:
Batch operating systems and high-level programming languages.
Key characteristics of second-generation computers:
The computers built during 1955-1964 were faster, comparatively smaller, easier to program, and more reliable. Commercial production and application were still costly and difficult.
Representative computers of the second generation:
UNIVAC LARC, IBM 7030, Honeywell 400 and CDC 1604
Third Generation of Computers:
The time period of the third generation:
1964 – 1975
Key hardware technologies developed during the third generation:
Integrated Circuits with SSI technologies, large capacity disks, large magnetic core memories, magnetic tapes, secondary storage devices, mini-computers, etc.
Key software technologies developed during the third generation:
Timesharing operating systems, unbundling of software from associated hardware, standardization of various high-level programming languages.
Key characteristics of third-generation computers:
The computers built during 1964-197 were relatively smaller, reliable, affordable, little easier to manufacture and use for commercial applications, more powerful than computers built in previous versions.
Fourth Generation of Computers:
The time period of the Fourth Generation:
1975 – 1989
Key hardware technologies developed during the fourth generation:
Integrated Circuits with VLSI (expanded as Very Large Scale Integration) technology, semiconductor memory, microprocessors, hard disks with large storage capacity, in-built secondary storage devices, floppy disks, magnetic tapes, high-speed computer networks, personal computers, etc.
Key software technologies developed during the fourth generation:
Operating Systems for personal computers, Graphical User Interface, UNIX Operating System, use of multiple windows on the single terminal screen, the C programming language, network-based applications, PC-based applications, etc.
Key characteristics of fourth-generation computers:
The computers built during 1975-1989 were smaller (than the ones produced in the earlier generations), more reliable, economically affordable, more powerful mainframe systems. These computers were easy to manufacture commercially and they became totally general-purpose machines.
Fifth Generation of Computers:
The time period of the Fifth Generation:
1989 – Till Date
Key hardware technologies developed during the fifth generation:
Integrated Circuits with VLSI (expanded as Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, large capacity hard disks, large capacity main memory, optical disks as portable media, laptops, powerful desktop PCs, computer workstations, notebook computers, very powerful mainframes, supercomputers, etc.
Key software technologies developed during the fifth generation:
Internet-based applications, multimedia applications, World Wide Web
Key characteristics of fifth-generation computers:
The computers built after 1989 are more powerful, reliable, cheaper, easier to manufacture commercially, and are completely general-purpose machines.
Advancement of COMPUTER Technology :
Over the past 5 generations, computers have evolved leaps and bounds in all aspects including the algorithms, technology, structure, and ease of handling. Presently it is the digital computers that are dominating the world in almost every area of life.
what is the full form of computer?
what is full form of computer?
what is computer?