Full Form of X-RAY:
X-RAY Full Form is X-Radiation. X-Ray is essentially a type of electromagnetic radiation, generally of the wavelength in between the range 0.01 and 10 nanometers and frequencies in between the range 30 petahertz and 30 exahertz. The energies of these rays fall in between the range 100 eV and 100 keV. The wavelengths of X-Rays are shorter than those of Ultraviolet Rays (abbreviated as UV Rays) but are longer that those of the gamma rays. X-Ray is often understood to mean Rontgen Radiation, a direct reference to the discoverer of these rays Wilhelm Rontgen.
X-rays may have varying characteristics and accordingly, they are prefixed with certain terms. For instance, X-Rays which have photon energies falling in between the range 5-10 keV are referred to as hard X-Rays whereas those with lower photon energies are referred to as soft X-rays. Hard X-rays have high penetration capability and hence, they are used to produce images of the insides of objects for example, in airport security and medical radiography. Additionally, hard X-Rays, due to their wavelengths being similar to that of the atoms’ size, are used in the determination of crystal structures by the process called ray crystallography.
On the other side, soft X-rays get readily absorbed in air and hence, cannot be used for these purposes. X-Rays have many distinguishing characteristics such as high energy capable of ionizing atoms and causing disruption of molecular bonds; traversing through thick objects and not getting scattered; shorter wavelength as compared to that of visible light making it useful in microscopy. The penetration depth of the X-rays will vary with the various orders in an X-Ray spectrum. X-Ray is regarded as one of the key discoveries of its time and has wide applications in the contemporary world.