Full Form of UPS:
Uninterruptible Power Supply
UPS Full Form is Uninterruptible Power Supply. UPS refers to an electrical apparatus providing emergency power to load whenever the main power or the input power source fails. A UPS is different from an emergency power system or auxiliary power system or a standby generator. The on-battery runtime of UPS is comparatively short but adequate to begin a standby power source or shut down properly the protected equipment.
A UPS is generally utilized for the purpose of protecting hardware such as data centers, computers, electrical equipment, telecommunication equipment where an unwarranted power disruption could result in fatalities, injuries, serious business disruption and data loss. The units of UPS vary in sizes; the small UPS units are created to provide protection to an individual computer without the need of a video monitor whereas the large units of UPS are created to power up entire data centers.
The largest UPS in the world is the 46-megawatt Battery Electric Storage System (abbreviated as BESS) based in Fairbanks, Alaska which provides power to the entire city, including rural areas at the time of electricity outages. All of this gives a brief idea that UPS plays a key role in ensuring uninterrupted power supply and therefore, it is all the more relevant to know more about it so here are a few points about UPS you should know:
Common Power Issues
The major role of any UPS is the provision of short-term power supply whenever the input power source undergoes failure. However, many UPS units additionally possess the capability to correct various common utility power issues such as the voltage spike or any sustained overvoltage, sustained or momentary alleviation in input voltage, noise which is characterized as a high frequency oscillation or transient that generally is injected into the line through a nearby equipment, instability palpable in mains frequency, and harmonic distortion which is characterized as a departure from sinusoidal waveform that is expected on the line. The UPS is divided into various categories on the basis of the aforesaid issues and many manufacturers categorize the products as per the number of power-related issues that their UPS address.
The three categories of modern UPS systems generally found are namely: line-interactive, on-line, and standby. An on-line UPS makes use of a double conversion mode of accepting the AC input, which is rectified to DC for the purpose of passing through the battery strings or the rechargeable battery and then the same undergoes inversion back to 120 V/230 V AC in order to power up the protected equipment. Meanwhile, a line-interactive UPS conducts maintenance of the inverter in line and redirection of the DC current path in the battery from the usual charging mode to the supplying current whenever the power is lost. In the Standby category, the load is powered up directly by means of the input power and there is the backup power circuitry invoked only on account of the failure of the utility power. Many UPS below 1kVA fall into the category of either standby variety or line-interactive that are generally relatively cheap.
For the purpose of powering up large units, the Dynamic Uninterruptible Power Supplies (abbreviated as DUPS) is used. In this, a synchronous alternator/motor is connected to the mains by means of a choke. Energy is stored in the flywheel. Whenever there is a failure of the mains power, an eddy-current regulation conducts the maintenance of the power on the load so long the energy of the flywheel is not exhausted. DUPS are often integrated or combined with a diesel generator which is turned on post a brief delay, resulting in the formation of a diesel rotary uninterruptible power supply (abbreviated as DRUPS). Recently, a fuel cell UPS has been created with the help of hydrogen with a fuel cell being the power source.
Form Factors of the UPS
As mentioned above, UPS system comes in various different sizes and forms, depending upon the nature of their application. However, the two most commonly found forms are rack-mount and tower model. Rack-mount models are those models that can be mounted in standardized 19” rack enclosures and require anywhere from 1 U to 12U rack space. These models are usually used in networking applications and servers. Tower models can be used for desktop computer applications or network workstations. They stand either on a desk or upright on the ground.
Applications of the UPS
There are several applications of the UPS and a few have been mentioned below.
In big businesses, reliability is crucial and a single, big and powerful UPS can be used but there are risks in such usage too. In order to ensure greater reliability, several smaller UPS modules may be integrated together for the purpose of providing redundant power equivalent to a single large UPS.
Another application of UPS is the enhancement of redundancy by plugging every power supply into a distinct circuit. The protection can be extended by connecting a UPS to each power supply. This provides greater protection from both a UPS failure and a power supply failure and ensures continued operation. This configuration is known as 2N or 1+1 redundancy.
In the case of outdoor use of a UPS, it is important that it has particular features guaranteeing toleration of weather without any performance glitches. SO, accordingly, the operating temperatures of the UPS systems need to be configured.
Standards of UPS
While in the market several kinds of UPS from different brands may be found, however, it is advised that only those that adhere to the international standards are used. The EN 62040 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) standards have been divided into four parts, with each catering to a particular standard. Part 1 deals with Safety requirements, Part 2 deals with the Electromagnetic compatibility (abbreviated as EMC) requirements, Part 3 deals with the method of specifying the performance requirements, and Part 4 deals with environment aspects. Each Part was released in different years, for example, Part 1 was released in the year 2008 and Part 2 in the year 2006.
UPS Full Form – United Parcel Service
Full Form of UPS is United Parcel Service. UPS is the largest provider of solutions related to supply chain management and package delivery system of the world. The headquarters of this company is in Sandy Springs, situated in Georgia. More than fifteen million packages are delivered by the UPS every day to nearly six million people in more than two hundred territories and countries along the globe. The nickname of the UPS is ‘Brown’ since it is known for its brown uniforms and delivery trucks.
An air cargo and airline delivery service are also operated by the company itself. Its base is in Louisville, situated in Kentucky. The primary business of the UPS consists of the timely delivery of documents and packages throughout the world. The service portfolio of this company is extended to supply chain services. There are three segments to which the operations of UPS are reported. These are Freight and Supply Chain operations, International Package operations and US Domestic Package operations.
Freight and Supply Chain
The UPS-SCS or the UPS Supply Chain Solutions consists of UPS Freight, contract logistics, and forwarding operations. The logistics and forwarding business of the UPS operate in more than one hundred and seventy-five territories and countries worldwide. It also consists of worldwide mail services, freight distribution, and forwarding, supply chain design, customs brokerage, management and execution. TL or Truckload and LTL or Less than Truckload services are also provided by the UPS Freight to the customers in the US.
US Domestic Package
The operations involved in the US Domestic package include the timely delivery of packages, documents and letters throughout the US.
The operations of International Package involve delivery to at least two hundred territories and countries. It also does distribution and shipment outside the US.