STD Full Form is Subscriber Trunk Dialing (or) Subscriber Toll Dialing. STD is a type of telephonic system which allows users to make trunk calls independently without the assistance of any operator. This term is, however, almost out of use in the current system of technology and mobile usages. Nevertheless, STD was first used to make long distance calls directly.
The term STD is commonly used in Ireland, UK, India, South East Asia, and Australia. Whereas; in countries like the USA the same terms is referred to as ‘Direct Distance Dialing’. The advent of STD gave birth to individual STD code for every city based on certain factors that represent the city name. With the introduction of mobiles, people are able to make a call between states within the country without the need of any STD code or prefix. Most often zero is used and this could differ from country to country.
STD Full Form – Additional Information
Telecommunication has evolved a lot over the past many years. It is easier to connect with a person in other city or even another country by just dialing a code prior to the person’s telephone number. This code is known as STD or Subscriber Trunk Dialing. Earlier, when a person wanted to communicate over the telephone with another person residing in a different city or country, the process of connecting the two lines was done with the help of a telephone operator at the exchange.
There was no facility to connect directly and dependency on the operator meant a long wait till the connection between the two exchanges was established and then passed on to you. The system ran thus. You had to make a call to your local exchange where the telephone operator would receive it. This was called “Trunk Assistance”. The operator would then note down the number of the person you wished to speak to and also ask for the location of the call destination. Later, he/she would establish inter- telephone exchange connection with the destination exchange.
After passing the desired call number to the operator at the other end, that operator would then finally connect you to the desired person. This was a metered and lengthy process and after every 3 minutes the operator would cut in and inform that the time was over and in case you wanted to speak more, you had to tell the operator to extend the duration, else the call would get cut after 3 minutes.
Need for STD
There are times when you wish to speak to someone urgently and, unfortunately, the person is outstation, then under such circumstances going through the older process of connection is agonizing. Most of the times, the operator declares regrets for unavailability of an open connection and you have to wait endlessly to get through to the desired number.
However, with the development of the telecommunication system, the “third party assistance” of the telephone operator is eliminated. Each city has an assigned code for easy reference and by dialing this code you can establish a direct contact with the telephone exchange in that city.
When a person makes a call within the city, it is treated as “local call”. When the call is intercity, then it is a “trunk call” or STD call. On the other hand, if you have to dial a number in a foreign country then it is “international subscriber dialing” or ISD call.
STD call not only eliminates the operator system but also gives the subscriber to talk uninterruptedly for the desired duration. Nonetheless, this is only possible when you make a call from home, as it is direct dialing. But if you make a call from the telephone booth, there is a meter connected to the telephone that records the call duration and the booth owner keeps reminding like the operator about time duration, which one needs to extend if need be. Finally, the meter calculates the charges as per the duration of call and dialing rate.
When a person dials in the local circle, it is treated as a standard local call. However, if you need to make an outstation call, then the first line owner (caller) is also known as the “subscriber” and since he rents the trunk line to make a call it is known as Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD). Now since the process has been made direct, there is no interruption during the call.
Nonetheless, your STD calls are metered and the final billing has local calls and STD calls charged at a different rate. There are two national telephonic service providers – MTNL and BSNL. In India, MTNL is Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited, which is operational in metro cities (Maha =metro/big and Nagar = city) like Mumbai and New Delhi. Whereas BSNL stands for Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and it provides services to all other parts of India. So a “subscriber” means any person who has applied to rent a telephone line through these providers.
Whenever the subscriber makes any calls, these are passed through the telecommunication network of either MTNL or BSNL, as the case may be. With the growing population and rising demand for communication, private companies have joined the bandwagon of telecommunication service providers. They are Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, and Tata Indicom.
Forming STD Codes
STD codes are made to differentiate the area you are calling. The access codes are made zone wise. It implies international country codes as well as intercity codes. For example, the USA country code is +1 and that of India is +91. For international dialing one has to prefix 00 before the country code and in trunk dialing the prefix is 0.
The STD codes of metro cities are usually double digit numbers, example New Delhi is 11, Mumbai is 22, Chennai is 44 and Pune are 20. Thus, while dialing a Pune landline number one should dial 020 followed by the number.
As far as 2-tier cities are concerned, STD code is composed of 3 digits. Some examples are 422 is Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, 484 is Kochi in Kerala, 821 is Mysore in Karnataka and 261 is Surat in Gujarat and so on. Thus, a call to a landline in Coimbatore would start with 0422 followed by the number.
These codes may be difficult to remember at all times; however, the Government and telecommunications department has released a book with the entire Indian cities’ STD codes. The STD codes directory gives an extensive listing of not only metros and 2-tier cities but also remote villages in India where the telecom network is available.
STD – A Boon for Communication Medium
With ever progressing country and rapidly growing cities, it is very important to have a hassle-free mode of communication. There is always an urge to move fast and thus no scope for snail-like communication. So it is a relief to know that there is no more waiting for the operator to connect your call when you can easily do it yourself using the STD code facility. The national service providers, as well as the private companies, make sure that the subscriber gets the best ever service and that there is an uninterrupted connection between the two parties.
With the addition of private telecom operators, the subscribers get the benefit of lower calling rate as there is competition between the providers to woo the customers. Whether one wants to call a friend or relative or make a vital business communication, STD eases the process of connecting with the other party. It is swift, direct and an absolute need of the hour.
STD Full Form: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Full Form of STD stands for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. One of the most rapidly spreading diseases in the world is the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Also referred to as venereal diseases or sexually transmitted infections, these diseases are basically infections that spread through sexual intercourse, particularly vaginal intercourse, anal sex, and oral sex.
The major problem with these diseases is that diseases do not generally show any symptoms and that is why passing of the infections go undetected. However, most commonly reported symptoms include vaginal discharge, ulcers near genital areas, penile discharge, and pelvic pain. Most of the STDs are sexually transmitted however, there have been cases where STDs can spread through non-sexual contacts like breastfeeding or during childbirth. Diagnostic tests for STDs are far more developed and easily available in developed countries than developing countries.
There are about around 30 different kinds of bacteria, parasites, and viruses that are responsible for sexually transmitted. Some of the bacterial STDs are gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis. Examples of viral STDs are genital herpes, genital warts, and HIV/AIDS. Trichomoniasis is an example of parasitic STD.Restraining from sexual intercourse is the best way of preventing STDs. Some of the ways to prevent contraction of sexually transmitted diseases are as follows:
Vaccination is considered one of the most plausible methods of prevention, however, as far as STDs are concerned, one may not find a substantial number of vaccines. Nevertheless, there are vaccines that are available to develop immunity against certain types of STDs. Vaccines are available on viral STDs like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and some kinds of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). Doctors advise vaccination before sexual intercourse.
Public awareness programs about sexually transmitted diseases have extensively promoted the use of condoms. Condoms are considered most convenient methods of prevention of STDs and they are heavily marketed as a part of the public awareness program. However, condoms only provide limited protection, as the uncovered areas may still be susceptible to infections.
HIV is mostly caused through sexual intercourse and therefore, it is advisable that the penis is properly covered with a condom so that the infection does not spread through any broken skin. However, it is advisable that sexual intercourse should not happen when there are injuries near private parts. Old condoms or used condoms should be disposed off and be considered infectious.
An individual can contract STDs at any age but women who are under the age of 25 and are sexually active and women above the age of 25 should undergo screening tests for STDs like Chlamydia and gonorrhea every year. Nucleic Acid Amplification tests are the most recommended methods of diagnosis for the STDs gonorrhea and Chlamydia. The diagnosis can be made on urine or genital swabs.
Testing can be done for a single infection or variety of infections. Early diagnosis and identification will help in arresting the effect.Sexually transmitted diseases can have fatal effects on the body and therefore, careful management of one’s health should be a priority. Regular check-ups, wise decisions, and healthy diet can be key to good immunity system
Full Form of STD: State Transition Diagram
STD Full Form refers to State Transition Diagram. Object-oriented modeling makes use of State Transition Diagram (STD). The concept has been used since the beginning. The fundamental design of the STD is to define the machine that consists of a number of states. In this concept, external factors cause the transition in the state of the machine. What happens is that machine obtains external factors, which result in a change from one state to another.
STD came even before object modeling concept. These diagrams are utilized because they give a formal definition of behavior. However, there are certain problems pertaining to the application of STD. The biggest problem is that in order to use STD, it is necessary to define all states of the system concerned. This will not be an issue if it is to be applied to small and uncomplicated systems but in a case of larger and complex systems, there is an increase in states and this causes problems in application.
This rise in a number of states is called state explosion and this problem makes systems too complicated for any practical use. It is, therefore, important to handle this state explosion issue. State explosion issue can be done away with by means of object-oriented methods that provide distinct state transition diagrams for every class. This results in simplification of every class and the transition is then feasible.
Of all the kinds of State Transition Diagram in object methods, the Harel Statechart is the most popular. The variety was invented by Rumbaugh and it is considered to be one of the most practical, effective, powerful forms of the STD. Of its many features, its ability to generalize states, facilitating digging out common transitions of states is the most impressive one. Additionally, the Harel Statechart method provides room for convenient management of processing, actions, and activities.
Actions refer to instantaneous processes, that is, they cannot be interrupted. These types of processes can be attached to the transitions or the beginning or commencement of a state. On the other hand, activities refer to long processes that can be interfered with and are attached or bound to states. Sometimes certain conditions are attached to processes, then the transition shall only happen when the condition is successfully fulfilled.STDs are preferred for defining the behavior of a single, uncomplicated object.
STD Full Form: Sacrae Theologiae Doctor
Full Form of STD refers to Sacrae Theologiae Doctor. A doctorate degree is considered to be the final step towards completion of the academic learning process. It indicates that the degree holder has delved into the depths of a subject, thoroughly researched its minor and major aspects, and come up with certain conclusions. It is because of this, a doctorate degree is considered one of the most valuable academic qualifications a person could obtain.
For the purpose of this article, we shall take up Sacrae Theologiae Doctor, which is also known as Doctor of Sacred Theology or Professor of Sacred Theology. It is the final degree one can obtain in theology in a pontifical university system of the Catholic Church.
The degree takes up the lessons from the Bachelor of Sacred Theology (BST) and the Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL) and provides deeper insights into them. In order to become eligible to STD, one has to attain the aforementioned degrees, STL, and BST. BST is a three years degree course that a student can take only if he has done minimum two years undergraduate study in the subject of Philosophy. SL follows BST and is a two years course. When a person has successfully attained the above-mentioned qualifications, he becomes eligible for STD, which he receives only when his doctoral dissertation is accepted and published.
There are many advantages appended to an STD degree. The STD or the Doctor of Canon Law (DCL or JCD) is the most preferred qualification in the teaching professions. Many countries mandate an STD or DCL degree to become eligible for teaching positions for the subject of Theology in Catholic universities. In fact, many universities stipulate the requirement of an STD degree for applicants to secure administrative jobs in the university. An STD degree can give an edge over other applicants for teaching positions and help you secure permanent posts on the theology teaching staff of a pontifical university. There can, however, be more stringent requirements, depending upon the university.
As mentioned above, the STD degree was also known as Professor of Sacred theology. This holds relevance because the degree inscriptions can be found in British churches, where the abbreviation ‘STD’ is used to denote these degree holders as the degree holders of Doctor of Divinity, which is an honorary degree in divinity. The practice of referring to the degree of Doctor of Divinity as STD is no longer prevalent however confusion still remains among the common public regarding the distinctiveness between these degrees. The result is that it is not uncommon to find people referring to both these degrees interchangeably.