Full Form of SMPS :
Switched Mode Power Supply
SMPS Full Form is Switched Mode Power Supply. D.C. to A.C. converters and D.C. to D.C. converters can be categorized as SMPS. In simple terms, it is the power supply, which uses switching regulator to stabilize and control the output voltage. This is done by switching off and switching on the load current. The benefit of such power supplies is, they reduce overall power loss and contribute to greater power conversion. The term SMPS generally refers to items, which can be directly connected to the mains. It can also be used to produce source power or be connected to an external supply. In effect, it can be a complete power supply.
SMPS Full Form – Additional Information
Switched Mode Power Supply is essentially an electronic power supply, which is incorporated with a switching regulator that helps in the conversion of electrical energy efficiently. An SMPS, which is also known as switch power supply or simply switcher, works like any other power supply, by ensuring transfer from a source such as mains power to a load like a personal computer, while carrying out the conversion of the characteristics of current and voltage.
However, it is different from a linear power supply as there is a continuous switch of the pass transistor and gives a little time in the transitions that involve high dissipations. Thus, in an ideal situation, an SMPS dissipates no power. Voltage regulation is attained by changing the ratio of on-to-off time. Much to the contrary, a linear power supply causes regulation of the output voltage by means of continual power dissipation in the pass transistor.
This high power conversion has great significance and is probably the best advantage of an SMPS. Unlike a linear supply power, SMPS can be lighter and smaller and this is because of a smaller size and weight of the transformer. SMPS is an advantageous option and that is why it is generally used as a replacement for those linear regulators. After all, they come with smaller size, higher efficiency, and lighter weight.
Despite all these benefits of using an SMPS, there are certain issues with it as well such as they are very complicated to use; cause of high electrical noise; simpler designs that may yield poor power factor. So, there are issues with it but nevertheless, it is a better option on the whole. There are many things about SMPS that everyone should know about. Thus, here are five points about SMPS you should know:
History of SMPS
One of the best ways of understanding anything is to begin with history. As history reveals so much about the purpose, the past, the present, and possibly the future and helps people appreciate its existence even more. SMPS, similarly, has contributed immensely in the conversion of electrical energy and therefore, it is apt to begin with its history.
It all started in the year 1910 when Charles F. Kettering invented the inductive discharge ignition. Following which his company, Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), started the production of Cadillac. This ignition system, generally known as the Kettering Ignition system, is essentially a modified version of a flyback boost converter, with the transformer being its ignition coil. It was eventually replaced by Capacitive Discharge Ignition.
In the year 1926, Philip Ray Coursey, a British inventor, sought to patent his invention: Electrical Condenser. Some years later, car radios started using electromechanical vibrators. In the year 1959, American inventors, Francis J. Starzec, and Joseph E. Murphy, both of whom worked with General Motors, sought to patent their invention: transistor oscillation.
In the year 1970, Tektronix starts using the High-Efficiency Power Supply in its oscilloscopes. Two years later, Hewlett-Packard introduced the first-ever pocket calculator, which was fitted with transistor switching power supply for the purposes of supplying the light emitting diodes, timing, clocks, etc. In the year 1977, the electronics giant Apple used SMPS in Apple II. Subsequently, there were more and more usages of the SMPS.
Explanation to SMPS
A Linear regulator was in vogue for quite some time. It provides for the desired output voltage by means of dissipation of excess power in terms of ohmic losses. It causes regulation of either current or output voltage by causing dissipation of excess electrical power. Such dissipation occurs in the form of heat and therefore, causes wastage of energy.
Much to the contrary, an SMPS causes regulation of either current or output voltage by ensuring switch among ideal storage elements such as capacitors and inductors These ideal switching elements do not have any resistance when they are closed and do not carry any current when they are open and therefore, the converters can ideally function with absolute efficiency. Also, in an SMPS the output current flow depends on the input power signal., the circuit topologies and the storage elements. It also depends on the patterns used for the purpose of driving the switching elements. The spectral densities of such elements have a concentration of energy at comparatively high frequencies.
Merits and demerits of SMPS
SMPS is largely a beneficial electrical power supply but it has its own share of issues, which shall be discussed herein under. The primary advantage of SMPS is that it provides for greater efficiency, as it causes dissipation of very little energy when it acts as a switch. Additionally, it is smaller in size, lighter in weight, and yields lower heat. On the other side, and as mentioned above, it has certain disadvantages. Some of them include greater complexity, generation of high-frequency energy which the filter must stonewall for avoiding electromagnetic interference (abbreviated as EMI) and a ripple voltage.
Types of SMPS
The classification can be made as per the circuit topology. There are non-isolated typologies and isolated typologies.
- Non-isolated Typologies: They are the simplest forms of SMPS. Under this typology, there are three sub-categories each of which uses a singular inductor for the purpose of energy storage.
- Isolated Typologies: Every isolated typology includes a transformer and therefore, has the capability to produce an output voltage, lower or higher, than the input by adjustments to the ratio. There may be multiple windings placed on the transformer for producing multiple output voltages.
Applications of SMPS
SMPS has found applicability in personal computers wherein they have universal inputs, that is, they can obtain power from mains power across the globe but this might require a manual voltage range switch. SMPS can withstand a myriad range of voltages and power frequencies. SMPS have found use in mobile chargers and they are attributed to have made these chargers cheaper and better with time. The first-ever mobile charger was a linear power supply but there was a quick switch to Ringing Choke Converter (abbreviated as RCC) SMPS, as the demand for greater efficiency grew. SMPS are also used for the DC conversion, particularly in automobiles.
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