Full Form of NDA:
National Democratic Alliance
NDA Full Form is National Democratic Alliance. NDA refers to the collaboration or coalition of various Indian political parties who are basically centre-right in their ethical adaptation. This coalition was formed for the first time in 1998. In 1998, NDA was led by BJP (Bhartiya Janata Party). At the time of its formation, NDA had 13 parties as its members. But now, more than 30 parties are part of it. Most of these parties are basically regional. NDA does not only target to rule the central administration, but it also takes part in the contests of within state administrations.
The first prime minister from NDA was Atal Bihari Vajpayee who held the position for 6 years from 1998 to 2004. But then, for some reasons the alliance was broken to some extent, and consequentially they lost the elections. But again in 2014, this coalition proved its potential in the general elections as it stormed back to the supreme power under the leadership of Narendra Modi.
NDA has does not have any regulatory or formal structure. Meetings are held and member parties decide about certain issues like sharing and allocation of in the elections, or distribution of ministry. George Fernandes, former defense minister, was the first ever convener of NDA.
Full Form of NDA – National Defense Academy
NDA Full Form stands for National Defense Academy. NDA is an Indian academy where the cadets of the Air Force, Navy, and Army get their training before going to their service academies for their pre-commissioning training. This academy is situated in Pune. It is the first academy worldwide where all three wings of the armed forces get their training together. Since the establishment of the Academy, the alumni of the NDA have led as well as fought in nearly every major conflict where the Armed Forces of India have been called for action. The alumni consist of nine recipients of the Ashok Chakra, and three recipients of the Param Vir Chakra. Around twenty-seven Chiefs of Staff have been produced by this academy till date.
The selection of the applicants for the NDA takes place through a written examination. UPSC is responsible for conducting this exam, which is followed by interviews. The SSB conducts these interviews and covers medical tests, physical skills, psychological testing, general aptitude, team skills and social skills. Semesters start in January and July. For each written exam, around four hundred and fifty thousand applicants participate. Around six thousand of them gets the invitation for the interview. The eligibility of the NA & NDA exam is only given to the male unmarried candidates. The maximum and minimum age for the exam is nineteen years and sixteen years respectively.
A residential, full-time undergraduate program is provided by the NDA to its cadets. A Baccalaureate degree (Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts) is awarded to cadets after the study of three years. Cadets can choose either science stream or the Humanities stream. The subjects taught in the science stream include Computer Science, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics. The Humanities stream provides studies in subjects like Languages, Political Science, History, Geography, and Economics.
The academic studies are divided into three segments in both streams. The first segment is the Compulsory Course, where subjects like Geography, Political Science, Computer Science, Chemistry, Foreign Languages (Russian, Chinese, Arabic or French), Economics, History, Mathematics, Physics, and English are taught. These subjects are studied by all candidates. The second segment is the Foundation Course. This course is compulsory for every cadet and consists of General Studies and Military Subjects. The last segment is the optional course. This course is specific to the chosen subject of the candidate.
NDA Full Form – Non-Disclosure Agreement
Full Form of NDA stands for Non-Disclosure Agreement. An NDA or non-disclosure agreement is a legal contract formed between a minimum of two parties. This contract briefly describes the confidential information, knowledge or material that the parties wants to share with each other for specific purposes, but desires to restrict the information’s access to the third party(s). Thus, in simple words, this contract makes the participating parties agree of not disclosing the matter that the agreement covers.
A confidential relation is created by an NDA between the parties participating in it for protecting proprietary or confidential information of any type. These contracts are usually signed when two individuals or companies consider doing business and require the explanation of the procedures utilized in the business of each party. The understanding of the process is needed to evaluate the business relationship. These agreements can be mutual. This means both parties get restrictions on the usage of the provided materials.
There are three types of non-disclosure agreements. The first type of an NDA is the unilateral NDA. It is also called a one-way NDA. This contract consists of two parties. The first party anticipates the disclosure of certain information to the second party. Here, the first party is called the disclosing party, and the second one is called the receiving party. This contract requires the protection of the disclosed information for certain reasons.
The second type of NDA is called a bilateral NDA. Here, two parties are involved, and both of them anticipate the information-disclosure to each other. The intentions of both parties are to protect the information of both parties from getting further disclosed. The last type of NDA is a multilateral NDA. This contract involves more than two parties. In this agreement, disclosing of the information is done by a minimum of one party and requires the protection of information from further getting disclosed. The multilateral NDA does not need separate bilateral or unilateral NDA to be formed between two parties.
Full Form of NDA – National Defense Act
NDA Full Form refers to National Defense Act. The NDA or National Defense Act is a legislation that organizes and funds the military of Canada. It comes from the French term LDN or Loi sur la défense nationale. This act was passed in the year 1922. It came into force on 1st January of the year 1023. This legislation resulted in the creation of the DND (Department of National Defense). This department formed by merging the Air Board, Department of Naval Service, and the Department of Defense and Militia.
On 4th November of the year 1966, ‘The Forces Reorganization Act of Canada’, or Bill C-243 was introduced. The main aim of this bill included the amendment of the NDA. This bill also intended the recognition of the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Navy, and the Canadian Army, that previously gave independent services and were separated, to come under a single umbrella. After the debate took place in the House of Commons, and its study by the Committee of Defense, the final reading of the bill took place in the April month of the year 1967. Thus, this cleared the path of the unifying the forces. On 1st February of the year 1968, the Force Recognition Act of Canada became effective. This created a single organization that has the responsibility of the Canadian forces, Canada’s defense, and the amendment of the NDA.
The NPP (Non-Public Property) has been established by the NDA as the Crown property’s special class that can be utilized for serving the former Canadian Forces’ members and their families. Similar regimes have been created by the majority of the western countries for supporting the welfare and morale of their nation’s militaries. The DGPFSS (Director General Personnel and Family Support Services) establish various policies and gives oversight for numerous activities and programs of the NPP. NPP is administered by the PFSS (Personnel and Family Support Services). The PFSS also delivers selected public welfare activities, services, and programs on behalf of the CMP (Chief of Military Personnel).
NDA Full Form – Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Full Form of NDA stands for Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. The NDA or Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is an NDPB (non-department public body) for the Department of Industrial, Energy and Business Strategy. The Energy Act passed in the year 2004 is responsible for the formation of this authority. Its evolution can be traced to the Nuclear and Coal Liabilities Unit of the Industry and Trade Department. It started functioning in the year 2005. The headquarters of the Nuclear Decommissioning Department can be found in Cumbria. Its Child agencies include the INS (International Nuclear Services) and the DRS (Direct Rail Services).
The main purpose of the NDA involves delivering the decommissioning of the civil nuclear legacy of the UK and cleaning up in a cost-effective and safe manner. It also works to increase the speed of the work programs without increasing the hazards. The NDA is not given the direct authority of managing the nuclear sites in the UK. It is responsible for overseeing the work via contracts. This is made possible by specially designed companies called site license companies. The function of the NDA is to determine the overall priorities and strategy to manage the decommissioning.
The NDA has a staff of three hundred people. Its yearly budget is three billion pounds. A large portion of the budget is spent on the contracts that are made with the sire license companies. These companies have also formed sub-contracts with other companies that give special services. The NDA introduces contractor expertise and innovation using a number of competitions that are quite same as the models that are being used in the US.
Thus, the main objective of the NDA involves the development of the waste solution and removal of the site hazards. It also makes sure that the highest standards of environmental management, security and safety is provided. It aims at building an effective and globally-standardized industry. It also works for gaining full support and approval from the stakeholders like the general public, government, employees, local communities, and contractors.
Full Form of NDA – New Drug Application
NDA Full Form stands for New Drug Application. The NDA or New Drug Application is the vehicle of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the US using which the sponsors of drugs propose the approval of the FDA for the marketing and sales of a new drug. The main objective of the NDA is to give sufficient information for permitting the reviewers of the FDA in establishing the efficiency and safety of the drug. The FDA also sees whether the proposed labeling of the drug is appropriate or not. It also sees whether the method utilized to manufacture the drug is utilized for maintaining the quality of the drug.
In the US, the drug makers are required to obtain an IND (Investigational New Drug) designation from the Food and Drug Administration before testing the drug on the subjects (human). The nonclinical data forms the basis of the application. This data is a combination of data obtained from the studies of the in vitro and in vivo laboratory safety for proving that testing the drug on humans is safe.
There are three phases in which the clinical trial of a drug is conducted. In the first phase, the testing of the drug is done on a few volunteers that have good health. This is done for determining whether the drug is acutely toxic or not. In the second phase, the drug testing is done in a large pool of sample to test the safety and accuracy of the drug. A large number of drugs fail in this face due to its less efficiency. In the third phase, the testing takes place in the placebo, double-blind controlled trials for demonstrating the working of the drugs. Before beginning these trials for determining the needed data, sponsors take permission from the FDA. The permission is taken because several hundred of patients are involved in the trials, thereby making them very expensive. Sometimes, phase four also takes place whenever FDA attaches extra conditions for drug approval.