Full Form of LPG :
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LPG Full Form is Liquefied Petroleum Gas, which is a byproduct of crude oil. It can also be derived from the process of CNG extraction. There are basically two kinds of LPG (1) Butane, which is used as a fuel for heaters, lighters, hair spray, paints, and camping stoves, (2) Propane, which is used as fuel for automobiles. The advantage or uniqueness of LPG is that it can easily convert into a liquid state as it is mildly compressed. This property enables large quantities of gas to be stored in smaller space. The reverse is also true that if it is allowed to escape or if the gas leaks, the liquid quickly changes into gas and evaporates. Hence, it is safe to use for a cooking range where there is also a need for increased quantity.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a flammable mixture comprising hydrocarbon gases, which are utilized in heating appliances in the form of fuel. Its application is extended to other areas such as vehicles and cooking equipments. LPG is also known as butane, propane, and even Liquid Petroleum Gas. LPG has found utility as a refrigerant and as an aerosol propellant and has successfully substituted chlorofluorocarbons (abbreviated as CFCs) in an endeavor to augment destruction of fragile but precious ozone layer. When LPG is used as a fuel in vehicles, it is referred to as autogas.
LPG is manufactured through the process involving refining of petroleum or wet natural gas. It is almost completely obtained from fossil fuel. In the year 1910, Dr. Walter Snelling produced LPG for the first time ever and in the following two years, LPG was put to commercial use. It presently provides for 3 percent of all consumable energy and burns cleanly without produce any soot. What is advantageous about LPG is that it does cause water or ground pollution since it is in the form of a gas. However, it can result in air pollution. As you have read, LPG has many properties that need elaboration. While most of them have already been covered above, there are some, which are still remaining. So, here are five points about LPG that everyone must know about:
Uses of LPG
LPG has multiple applications and some of them have been mentioned below:
- Cooking: LPG is a commonly used cooking fuel in several countries. It is especially used in India, where its supply is subsidized by the Central Government. In Hong Kong, LPG was once a popular fuel but its supply has now reduced with the increased use of town gas. In Brazil and North American continent, LPG is a popularly used cooking fuel.
- Rural Heating: LPG can be used as an excellent alternative to heating oil, electric heating, or kerosene. It is usually used in those areas where there is a lack of access to the direct gas pipeline. It is used a source of power in Combined Heat and Power Technologies (abbreviated as CHP), which is essentially a process of producing both heat and electrical power from an individual fuel source.
- Motor Fuel: Internal Combustion Engines make use of LPG to replenish itself. When used as a motor fuel, it is referred to as autogas or even auto propane. Major research studies have found that autogas reduces fuel consumption and smoke emissions, however, there is no reduction of hydrocarbons. LPG, as a motor fuel, is advantageous in many respects such as it non-corrosive, non-toxic, and absence of tetraethyl lead, a high octane rating, etc.
- Refrigeration: LPG is often used as a refrigerant. It has been used for quite some time as a replacement to hydrofluorocarbon or chlorofluorocarbons refrigerant.
Chemical Properties of LPG
LPG has the tendency to evaporate swiftly at room temperatures because its boiling point is low. It is, for this reason, it is supplied in sealed steel vessels. LPG becomes liquid at its vapour pressure but the point of such vapour pressure would heavily depend on several factors such as temperature and composition. It is to be noted that air is lighter than LPG and therefore, the latter settles in low regions, which poses some dangers. The first one is that in case there is a mix between LPG and air that is within explosive limits and that there is an ignition source nearby, then there is a possibility of big explosion. The second danger is that it may result in suffocation because LPG would displace air, causing a reduction in the concentration of oxygen.
History of LPG cylinders
Developed countries have switched to direct gas pipeline system, which provides gas supply to houses directly. However, there are countries that still use cylinders for the supply of gas. So, let us explore some historical facts behind the use of LPG cylinders. It was around 1870-1880 that 1st generation of cylinders was produced for the purpose of storing liquid carbon dioxide. These cylinders came with long steel tubes but without handles. These early versions of cylinders were very heavy and difficult to handle. After some time, the 2nd generation cylinders were produced. These cylinders were manufactured from steel and came with a handle. These second generation cylinders are traditional cylinders.
Then came the 3rd generation cylinders that brought major modifications in the previous versions. They used plastic for the purpose of coating the metal exterior. Even though modifications were made, many setbacks in the first and second generation cylinders could not be done away with. The latest generation is the 4th generation, which is currently used in the market. These cylinders are manufactured with the help of aerospace technology. They are more advanced and have considerably done away with most of the defects in the previous generation cylinders.
Environmental effects and LPG
LPG is mostly obtained from fossil fuels. When LPG is burnt, it releases carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas, and carbon monoxide. Even still, the amount of carbon dioxide released is still less as compared to other fuels. It is a mixture of propane and butane and therefore, it generates more carbon per joule than propane but less than butane. It is a clean fuel majorly, as it generates fewer particulates and that is why it is one of the most preferred alternatives across the globe.
In the market, LPG can be found in several varieties and is often marketed in the form of mixtures containing mainly butane or propane. In the regions situated in the northern hemisphere, the mixtures comprise more propane during winter and more butane during summers. In the United States of America, LPG is sold under two grades, namely HD-5 and commercial propane. The American Society for Testing and Materials (abbreviated as ASTM) and the Gas processors Association (abbreviated as GPA) are the bodies responsible for publishing these gradations. Mixtures of propane or butane are also included in these gradations.
|GENERAL TERMS||GENERAL TERMS|
|IAS||AM and PM|