LASER Full Form is Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. LASER is an instrument that emits light through the optical amplification process, which is based on the electromagnetic radiation’s stimulated emission. Lasers work through resonance effects and the output is a consistent electromagnetic field. In other words, in such a beam of coherent electromagnetic energy, the frequency, and phase of all the waves are same.
LASER also refers to the device that generates the beam of intense light. This light is produced through a process known as optical amplification. LASER evolved originally from MASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) which is a form of radio waves and microwaves with no visible light. It was Gordon Gould; a town student discovered the light form of MASER, which brought LASER into existence in 1957.
LASER is used in laser printers, cutting and welding tools, optical disk drives, laser surgery, barcode scanners, and various scientific researches. In the year 1960, the first ever Theodore H. Maiman devised LASER at Hughes Research Laboratories. The invention was based on the work done by Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes. Their work was primarily theoretical.
A LASER is different from other light’s sources. The feature called spatial coherence enables LASER to be concentrated or rather focused on a spot and this feature enables it to be used in lithography and laser cutting. This feature also enables the beam to remain narrow even over great distances and hence, facilitating the use of LASER as laser pointers. Apart from this, LASER is also enthused with the feature called high temporal coherence which enables it to emit an individual color of light.
Temporal coherence is used to emit pulses of light, which may be as short as a mere microsecond. With time and advancement in technological research and developments, specialized versions of LASERs emerged, which have caused optimization of performance goals such as maximum mean output power, maximum pulse energy, minimum cost, maximum power efficiency, new wavelength bands, etc.
LASER has found applications such as in laser printers, bar-code scanners, and optical disk drives, free space optical communications, fiber optic communications, DNA sequencing devices, welding instruments, law enforcement devices for marking targets, laser lighting displays used in entertainment. It is also extensively used in military operations for the purpose of securing targets and marking their positions. LASER is one of the groundbreaking inventions of humankind, which has found utility in important areas. Its role in the advancement of technology is immensely important.