ISIS Full Form is Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. It is also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. ISIS is a militant group which follows the ideology of radical Islam or Islamic fundamentalism. While the world has started to cringe at the thought of being overpowered by communal, international hazardous politics, the rise of terrorist outfits has given way to even more dangerous atmosphere that all civilized countries can only collectively overpower.
The need for amicable compromises and collective initiatives in this respect are extremely crucial, especially when the radical Islamic outfit, ISIS or ISIL, is witnessing a surge in its followers and powers. With the death of the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden, many prayed for a more secure world and imagined dwindling powers of the remaining terrorist organizations.
This, however, did not happen, as the world had to apprise itself of the unfortunate fact that another radical organization has risen, unmatched in its power, resources, and followers, who are willing to give up their lives over imaginary promises presented to them. ISIS has become an international menace that has transcended national boundaries of Iraq and Syria and penetrated the borders of other countries.
What is interestingly different about ISIS is its phenomenal rise. It was only in recent three-four years that ISIS has become a major media sensation and a serious concern for world leaders. While traditional terrorist outfits have confined their operations to certain territorial limits or have failed to cross beyond particular borders, ISIS has managed to cause every nook of the world to grapple with the issue of terrorism. Recent killings of two Japanese captives in the ISIS stronghold shocked Japan, which has not been affected by Islamic terrorism.
Another intriguing aspect of ISIS is its methods of propaganda. The methods of indoctrination adopted are surprisingly modern and technologically friendly. The organization has recruited persons to handle the task of promotion of its ideologies through popular internet platforms like Twitter, Whatsapp, Facebook, etc that have caused ease in access to even the remotest areas of the globe.
The amount of influx of indoctrinated individuals into Syria and other areas in ISIS control is the proof of the effect. All of the above mentioned is not enough to truly understand the rise of ISIS. It is important to explore its past, its present and possible effects in future. For that purpose, there are ten things one must know about ISIS first.
ISIS Full Form – Important Information:
ISIS did not come up in one day. There is a long, brutal history, which has lead to the institutionalization of this outfit. History will tell a lot about this organization, which has undertaken a drive to kill, slaughter, rape and indoctrinate. ISIS was actually founded way before than one can imagine. Founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, ISIS was known by a different name: Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād, which literally translates into “The Organization of Monotheism and Jihad”.
During the invasion of Iraq in 2004, the group was an active participant in the insurgency. The group is said to have pledged loyalty to the most wanted person in the world, Osama Bin Laden and carried out ambushes on American soldiers, officials, embassies, etc. However, it was only after the death of Zarqawi that the world saw the building up of a more radical organization, ISIS. ISIS came to prominence when Abu Omar al-Baghdadi took over the organization as its emir. Eventually, the organization declared itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Baghdadi named as its Caliph. During that occasion, the group was renamed as Islamic State.
Ideologies of the outfit ISIS:
Every organization is founded upon certain beliefs and ideologies. Based on these ideologies, the organization undertakes actions to further these ideologies. However, sometimes these ideologies might pose a danger to societal tranquility and aspirations of people. This is what the extremely radical ideologies of the ISIS have done to the people of Syria, Iraq and the world. Claiming to have acquired complete authority over Muslims across the world, it has maligned the sacred institution of Islam by distorting its principles to suit their taste.
ISIS is technically a Salafi group that observes strict interpretation of Islamic tenets and vouches for violence to achieve such interpretation. The group sees those Muslims as infidels, who do not observe Islam the way they do. It strictly follows the notions of Jihad and very closely follows the hard-line Al-Qaeda ideologies. However, ISIS’s adherence to apocalypticism provides a major distinction from other Islamic groups.
Purpose ISIS wants to achieve:
ISIS is a Sunni organization that aspires to bring all the Muslims across the globe under its authority. It believes that Baghdadi is the rightful successor of Prophet Mohammed and therefore, exercises unchallengeable authority over Muslims. It wants to spread its vicious tentacles throughout the world and mercilessly punish those who do not accept strict Koranic interpretation. ISIS’s brutal onslaught on the Yazidi people is an example of ISIS’s dangerous proclivity towards those whom it considers “infidels”.
Propaganda of ISIS:
As mentioned earlier, one of the most intriguing aspects of ISIS is its involvement in social media to connect with people across the world in order to popularize its tenets and radicalize its sympathizers. In fact, much of its human resources have come into its influence through its rather advanced propagandist strategy. The outfit runs accounts on popular social media platforms like facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc. It has recruited individuals, who are good at handling such operations and creating creative and influential content online that will draw interests of people. It is not uncommon to come across ISIS videos, magazines (Dabiq), pictures, etc.
In a report it was stated that ISIS has been using women recruits to connect with females online and influence them in joining the group. ISIS has changed the traditional strategy of sending out its soldiers to target countries to attack them. What it does now is to radicalize individuals through online medium and persuade them to take up arms and attack their domestic country. Thus, the countries are left in a quagmire as they do not have only look out for foreign transgress but also terrorism plots brewing within national borders.
Presence of ISIS:
ISIS has grown as an International terrorist outfit, with members affiliated to it from different parts of the world including nations like the United States, the United Kingdom, France, etc. ISIS has a very strong presence in Iraq and Syria, with Al-Raqqa in Syria declared as its de facto capital. Lately, it has set up official branches in countries like Pakistan, Algeria, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, etc. In Afghanistan, Khorasan province was set up in the year 2015, with Hafiz Saeed Khan as its administrator. The province has presented an unconditional loyalty to the ISIS by accepting Baghdadi as the caliph.
In Yemen, which is currently indulged in a political turmoil involving Shia Houthis, is a prominent region where ISIL enjoys presence. It however sees Houthis as its prime enemy in the region. In western Africa, the leadership of Boko Haram has accepted Baghdadi as the Caliph and showed allegiance to the ISIS outfit. Following the lines is the leader of Isnilon Totoni Hapilon (an outfit based in Philippines) who has pledged loyalty to ISIS. It is evident that ISIS is winning over regional terrorist outfits, particularly from middle-east and African regions and this is a dangerous sign.
Administration of ISIS:
If you think ISIS is a mere outfit with no proper agenda, you need to revise your thoughts. ISIS is not just an organization, with sporadic expanse and limited aspirations. Recently, leaked dossier shows that ISIS plans to create a city, where it would impose its strict Islamic tenets and authority. The dossier reveals a detailed account of the proposed administration system, trade and commerce facilities, establishment of schools of doctrinarian, etc. Thus, ISIS is not only planning to kill. Nevertheless, the current administration of ISIS differs from what has been proposed.
As far as leadership of the outfit is concerned, it is Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who enjoys the unbridled power of administration and decision-making. He has declared himself the rightful successor of Prophet Mohammad and claimed that he has unbridled authority over all the Muslims of the world. ISIS has recently declared that it plans to mint gold, copper, and silver coins, which were once part of an ancient Islamic system. However, many scholars and experts doubt the efficacy of such proposed monetary system.
Militants or Mujahideen are venerable sections of ISIS and taking advantage of this, ISIS often outfit invites people with the promise that they would be assigned a place in the coveted section but eventually force them to do daily chores. Many recruits have claimed that they were tricked into joining the outfit and forced to do regular work. As far as women are concerned, the outfit imposes strict rules on them and believes that the only purpose a woman serves is the purpose of serving her husband and family.
Military power of the ISIS:
Without its military power, ISIS is just an abominable name. The outfit has successfully managed to recruit a large number of individuals and surprisingly, the majority of such individuals come from foreign countries. A UN report stated that the strength of ISIS military comprises majorly foreign fighters, from over 80 countries. There has been a significant increase in the influx of younger population in the organization.
Estimates show that Tunisian recruits form the majority of the bulk, followed by Saudi recruits, then Russian, then Jordanian and so on. Approximately 600 fighters are from the United Kingdom. Foreign fighters in the outfit are distinguished from Syrian and Iraqi fighters and are only given food and housing but no wages.
Traditional form of weaponry and modes of attack are still prevalent in the outfit. Much of the weaponry comes from Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi stock maintained during the invasion of Iraq and the Syrian Civil War. The weaponry includes missiles, armors, guns, etc. As far as unconventional methods are concerned, suicide bombers have become fashionable methods. Other than suicide bombers, ISIS has stock of chemical weapons as well. As far as nuclear weapons are concerned, agencies believe that ISIS lacks enough resources and technical intelligence to develop nuclear weapons but concerns remain over procurement of such weapons by means of bribing officials of certain nations.
Financial assistance to ISIS:
So far as financing is concerned, ISIS has explored many options to ensure that its kitty remains wealthy. The outfit generates revenue by way of extortion, harsh taxation, robbing and vandalizing cultural sites, kidnapping, donations from certain Gulf States, and social media networks. The financial status of ISIS is huge as it is the richest Jihadi outfit in the world. Al-Raqqah, the de facto capital of ISIS, has heavy amounts of oil reserves and US officials claim that ISIS earns millions every day for export of oil. In fact, much of the financial assistance comes from sale and export of oil.
Human Rights violation of ISIS:
The size and power of ISIS do not generate as many worries as its brutal and violent methods of dealing with so-called “infidels”. ISIS is responsible for war crimes, with primary victims being women and children in the affected areas. ISIS undertakes to behead of captives and circulating videos of the same, killing men and raping women, and compulsive conversion. It is particularly violent towards Shia Muslims, Alawites, Yazidis, Mandeans, etc. Thus, it is actively engaged in ethnic cleaning.
Sexual violence is prominent in the regime, with thousands of women enslaved in ISIS camps. Many women have lost their husbands to ISIS, which forces them to marry its soldiers. Violence is prevalent in the camps. What ISIS calls “Sexual Jihad” has become an everyday affair of the regime. It has become clear that the world is facing a dangerous situation, where it must immediately act. The effects of ISIS on the world are palpable with recent Paris and California attacks and thus, have become signs of extreme concern. World leaders have come together to operate air strikes in the ISIS’s territories but they have to come up with a even more robust plan, as air strikes do not produce desired effects.
ISIS Full Form: Institute for Science and International Security
Full Form of ISIS stands for Institute for Science and International Security. Institute for Science and International Security, hereinafter referred to as by the abbreviated form ISIS, is a non-governmental institution that is nonprofit in nature. Its role is to apprise the common public about the important scientific and policy matters that directly or indirectly affect the entire international security regime. The institution was founded in the year 1993 by a group of eminent personalities headed by the former nuclear inspector at the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency (Abbreviated as IAEA), David Albright.
The purpose of founding the ISIS was to instill an obligation on the part of the scientific community that they are important participants in matters involving national and international security. The focus areas of the ISIS is in four areas namely, prevention of the use of nuclear weapons; to promote the need for greater transparency in the development of nuclear arms and related technology; to strengthen the much desired non-proliferation regime; and lastly, to reduce the number of nuclear arms in circulation or development.
The Board of the ISIS is a key group that undertakes important decisions directed at the administration of the institution. The following are the members of the board namely, David Albright , who is the current Chairman or President of the Institute; John Redick, who belongs to the Charlottesville-Albemarle Community Foundation; Corey Hinderstein, whose popularity stems from the Nuclear Threat Initiative; Steven Aftergood, who is a part of the Federation of American Scientists and finally Michael Rietz, who is the Treasurer of the Institute. All these aforementioned personalities have carved their names in the international arena and are well-known for their contributions.
The ISIS has received much acclaim for its endeavors. The chairman David Albright has been honored with the prestigious Joseph A. Burton Award given by the American Physical Society, which is actually a well known society of American Physicists. Mr. David has been cited for his major contributions to the goal of reduction of dependency on nuclear arsenals. Thus, ISIS has been doing a great job by participating in the international security regime and the world is a witness to all of it.
Full Form of ISIS: Intermediate System to Intermediate System
ISIS Full Form stands for Intermediate System to Intermediate System. Also known by its popular abbreviated forms ISIS or IS-IS, this topic shall enlighten the readers about a routing protocol which most of us are unaware of. Intermediate System to Intermediate System refers to a routing protocol that is designed for the purpose of transferring information and data efficiently within a particular computer network. This routing protocol achieves this task of efficient transfer by ascertaining the best possible route through, what technically called, packet-switched network.
ISIS was designed as an international standard within the Open Systems Interconnection (abbreviated as OSI) reference design. It has been defined in ISO/IEC 10589:2002. The ISIs or IS-IS has been named as the de facto standard and has been used in large computer networks. Let us discuss the history behind the development of this routing protocol. ISIS was designed by Digital Equipment Corporation as a segment of DECnet Phase V. In the year 1992, the ISIS was declared a standard by ISO and was applicable for communication among networks, which shall be referred to as Intermediate Systems. The development of ISIS was simultaneous with that of the Internet Engineering Task Force (abbreviated as IETF).
ISIS Full Form: International Species Information System
Full Form of ISIS refers to International Species Information System. The segment will enlighten the readers about an important organization that undertakes some of the very important functions. International Species Information System, hereinafter referred to as by its abbreviated form ISIS, is a non-profit international organization that provides services to about 800 zoos and various aquariums situated across 80 countries of the world. The organization is tasked with the purpose of providing its affiliated members with key zoological data through a specially designed software called the Zoological Information Management System (abbreviated form being ZIMS).
The software hosts a large collection on zoological information, which is shareable with the members of the organization. As per the records for the year 2013, the software hosts data on about 12, 490 taxonomies at distinct species levels. With the help of the biological information such as parentage, sex, death information, etc the members are able to access relevant information and manage their animal collection.
Founded in the year 1973, the organization has been steadily gearing towards the achievement of its goals, which largely circle around wild animal conservation and protection. The organization does not have any governmental control or political affiliation and this makes it one of the most credible organizations of the world. Like ZIMS, there are other specialized softwares that help the administration of the ISIS. Some of the software have been mentioned in the following paragraphs.
- EGGS, which is an egg clutch management software that maintains records on egg laying species.
- ARKS4, which stands for Animal Records Keeping System. The system is responsible for allowing affiliated members to contribute information from their database.
- SPARKS., which stands for Single Population Analysis & Records Keeping System. The system provides support to the studbook management and analysis of various species.
- MedARKS, which stands for Medical Animal Records Keeping System, is a facility available to the members only upon request. The system hosts records on veterinary medical data.
- LearnZIMS, which can be understood as an educational variety of ZIMS. The system is available to those organizations that conduct lessons on animal husbandry, aquarium and zoo science.
It is quite apparent that the ISIS is engaged in a crucial activity pertaining to conservation of zoological and aquatic spices, which are fundamental to the ecosystem.
Full Form of ISIS: International Spinal Intervention Society
ISIS Full Form refers to International Spinal Intervention Society. The discussion will apprise the readers about an important society that discharges some of the very important functions that you must know about. The International Spinal Intervention Society is now known as the Spine Intervention Society (abbreviated as SIS). The Society has been actively engaged in the development and promotion of high quality standards relating to practices of interventional procedures in cases of diagnosis and curing of spinal pain. The society is lead by some of the most talented and well renowned physicians who have worked immensely in promotion of public and professional awareness about such interventional methods in practice.
The society has more than 3000 members and it comprises persons from different specialties such as Rehabilitation, Neurology, Medicine, etc. Let us now look into the history behind the foundation of the society. It all happened in the year 1988 when a small group, after having attended a spine meeting held in San Antonio, decided to craft a study group that will be aimed at the advancement and promotion of spine interventional procedures. The group named themselves the Needle Jockey Club. The founding members were Bogduk, Derby Aprill, and Tibiletti.
All the founding members of the group were doctors. In the year 1991, the name of the group had been already changed to the International Spinal Injection Society and in that same year, the first newsletter of the society was published. The newsletter published some important information about the procedures. In the year 1992, the society organized its first ever workshop as well as a meeting, promoting educational information. The name of the organization changed again in the year 2000. The society published its Statement of Purpose which declares the International Spinal Injection Society as association of doctors and physicians.
ISIS Full Form: Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Studies
Full Form of ISIS refers to Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Studies. Under this segment, what we shall discuss something which is of great value. Though the institute we are referring to has been dissolved, the importance of the institute still remains and that is why we have the Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Studies, also known as by its abbreviated form ISIS, as our topic of discussion.
The Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Studies, hereinafter it shall be referred to as ISIS, is a former British Educational charity that was established in the year 1985. The foundation happened with the efforts of a group of researchers, who were formerly associated with the Society for the Interdisciplinary Studies (abbreviated as SIS). The original aim of the foundation of the institute was to assess and analyze the certain revisionist theories of the famous Immanuel Velikovsky.
The primary objective of the ISIS is to facilitate healthy discussion on the history of the world. It wanted to bring together learned persons from across the globe and from different fields of studies to pool in their understanding and knowledge on certain issues relevant to the history of the ancient era. The institute derives its name from one of the major goddesses of the ancient Egypt, Isis, though there are certain disputes regarding this as well but we shall not dwell on them in this discussion.
In its functioning days, the institute had garnered a lot of international attention and many scholars from different countries participated in the discussions organized by the institute. Those scholars who were working on areas such as radiocarbon dating, ancient history, and other forms of dating were key participants. Many research scholars visited and studied in the institute. The Institute gained momentum under the leadership of David Rohl, who promoted diverse approaches towards understanding of the history of ancient era.
The institute however could maintain its status for long and met with many controversies. Take for example, the publication New Chronology, which was published in the year 1995 created a lot of controversies which forced the institute to re assess the publication. There were many prominent lectures conducted in the institute however they could not help the institute maintain its presence in the society. Unfortunately, the once cherished institute met a demise in the year 2005 in which it was officially dissolved.
Full Form of ISIS: International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies
ISIS Full Form stands for International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies. If you like learning about space and related technologies, then this segment shall be of particular interest to you, as we would be discussing about satellites. The name of the satellites in discussion is the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies, which are also referred to as by their acronyms ISIS. The International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies, which shall now be referred to as ISIS throughout the article, were the third and fourth satellites that were put to launch as a part of the launch of a series of Canadian satellites. These satellites were launched for the purpose of facilitating study of Ionoshpere.
When the launch of the Canadian Alouette 1 happened, the country along with the United States of America, decided to collaborate in a program which is famously known as the ISIS program. The program involved the launch of three more satellites. The first of three satellites was named as Alouette 2 and the other three were ISIS 1 and ISIS 2. ISIS 1 was launched in the year 1969 with the help of Delta Rocket at Vandenberg situated in California. However, in the year 1984, Canada stopped using the ISIS 1 but authorized Japan to use it. Japan used the satellite until the year 1990.
ISIS 2 was also launched by the Delta Rocket from the same location as that of the ISIS 1. The launch, however, happened in the year 1971. Because there was a shortage of budget, the design of the ISIS 2 was kept pretty much similar to that of the ISIS 1. It must have become patent that the launch of satellites was crucial to the Canada’s space program, however, due to certain lags and financial constraints the country did not continue with the program for long. This nevertheless a finds a mention for our discussion.