ISI Full Form is Indian Standards Institute. ISI is a standard body in India which checks industrial products and conforms whether they meet Indian standards or not. ISI was created during the independence of India in order to maintain high standards of industrial goods. Though the task of providing certification was taken up by a stronger set up called BIS or Bureau of Indian Standards, the phrase ‘ISI mark’ is still used to certify the quality of a product. ISI mark is an absolute must for products to be sold in India.
A manufacturer, who is confident about his product qualifying to meet the ISI or BIS standards, can claim or apply for the certification. BIS issues certificate after testing the product in one of its labs or can send a representative to verify the veracity and grant the license to use ISI mark. The products which should have the ISI certificate are electric motors, heaters, switches, LPG cylinders, thermometers, automotive tyres etc.
When a person buys something, all that he thinks of is to get value for money. The product that is purchased should be of a good quality and should be safe to use. Well, these are basic rights of every consumer, since money well spent gives tremendous satisfaction to any individual. In order to monitor the quality of the products, especially electrical goods and construction stuff, the Government has appointed an organization that ensures that the products made and sold conform to Indian standards of safety and use.
ISI Full Form – Additional Information
ISI is Indian Standards Institute that lays the safety norms and quality standards for consumer goods. It all started with the International level concern for quality maintenance and establishment of International Standardization Organization (ISO) on October 14th, 1946. With a common consent of 25 countries, this ISO was started to facilitate international synchronization and association of industrial standards and norms. With ISI as one of its founder member, the ISO became fully functional since 1947. Currently, much more developing countries have joined in as members of ISO, raising its number to around 130.
Indian Standards Institute gives its ISI trademark to all the products that pass its conformity tests. At present, the ISI is taken over by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) appointed by the Government since April 1, 1987. In order to maintain balance in the quality of things produced for the masses, it is essential to have stringent measures to ensure that the products are always of a good quality with no room for the hazard to public health or environmental issues. Bureau of Indian Standards have their testing laboratories in various places and the product can be tested there to obtain NOC or ISI mark.
What is the significance of ISI mark?
Health and safety of an individual are of prime importance and there are many products that we use as a consumer on a daily basis that can pose health and safety hazards if there is no check on its quality. In order to sort this issue, the Government has appointed an organization, BIS, that has the responsibility to ensure that industrial products are manufactured as per set standards by the government.
There should be no room for compromise on the material used or the process applied in the manufacture. Goods like LPG cylinders, gas valves, cement, etc can pose a serious threat to human safety if they are substandard. We see and hear of many cases of cylinder explosion or building collapse because of inferior material used or illegal manufacturing done. This has to stop somewhere, as for greed of little money many unscrupulous traders and manufacturers play around with human lives.
There are some categories of goods that have compulsory testing requirements, whereas others are voluntary. The BIS conducts surprise checks on manufacturing units and tests random samples from the unit as well as market to see whether both the samples pass standardization tests. ISI certification is awarded to successful manufacturers who pass the test of the ideal workplace as well as the quality product.
How do you get the ISI mark?
In order to get the ISI mark certification, it is essential to submit the application to the nearest Bureau of Indian Standards office. Then they send an officer to evaluate your premises and product. If the officer is convinced that the factory has the capacity to manufacture quality goods as per set standards, then the manufactured sample is picked up for inspection. The sample is tested at the factory as well at outside lab and only on the satisfactory passing of the product a license is issued to the manufacturer and the product gets ISI mark.
In other cases, the manufacturer gets the product tested in BIS lab and the test results are documented independently. Under such circumstances, the BIS authenticate the test results and then grants permission for usage of ISI mark. There are certain categories of items which demand compulsory ISI certification.
These are various grades of cement, steel products like tubes used for construction purposes, etc medical equipment like thermometers and x-ray equipment, welded low carbon steel cylinders used for LPG, gas valves, regulators, automobile accessories like tubes for pneumatic tyres as well as these tyres for different types of vehicles, diesel engines, food products like baby foods, skimmed milk powder, etc and finally, household electrical goods like submersible water heater, electric iron, switches and insulated cables for wiring.
Why is standardization necessary?
All over the world, there is a necessity to bring the manufacturing process under uniformity and maintain a common standard for easy trade and export. If all the manufacturing units conform to a particular set of standards, example the ones set by International Standardization Organization, then any item manufactured in one country can be exported and used in another country without any hassle of compatibility. Even in the local market, if there is a supply of standardized products then it becomes easier for the consumer to buy any product without the fear of being made redundant due to lack of interchangeable components.
This holds true especially for widely used household appliances that need periodic repairs and maintenance. If the appliances have standard parts, irrespective of the various brands of manufacture, then it is easy to get them serviced at any repair shop without having to wait to obtain original parts from the company. This also works for products that are bought abroad and need parts replacement here. Besides this, standardization ensures that the quality of a particular component is the same here as is elsewhere. It is ideal to monitor quality control of a product.
What are the benefits of buying ISI marked products?
Indian Standards Institute or ISI marked products spell quality and safety for the consolation of the consumer. Any company that uses this logo for their products is bound by law to deliver high standard goods and the consumer thus gets good value for money.
ISI mark is a mark of trust and to keep it alive the officers at BIS undertake surprise checks of certified products at the factory or random samples from the market. These are then tested in their lab to see if the quality is consistent even after obtaining the certification or the manufacturer has cheated and made the inferior quality product under the ISI mark.
If such activities are detected, then the manufacturer can be punished for fraud and misuse of ISI mark. It is an offense to resort to making cheap quality stuff after obtaining the ISI certification as this amounts to cheating the public and their trust in the Government institution.
ISI mark is given to environment-friendly and high standard products. This is a way of building trust in consumers that the Government cares for their health and safety and is willing to take any necessary steps to ensure that there is no compromise on the delivery of the product.
ISI Full Form: Indian Statistical Institute
Full Form of ISI stands for Indian Statistical Institute. One of the premier institutions in India is Indian Statistical Institute (ISI). It is regarded as a brilliant, respected academic institution and it holds national importance. Its national importance has been expressly recognized vide an Act of Parliament enacted in the year 1959. Originally a statistical lab established by Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in Kolkata’s Presidency College, it went on to inspire foundation of the United States’ first statistical institute established at the Research Triangle, North Carolina.
The foundation of the institution was inspired by the teachings of Rabindranath Tagore and Brajendranath Seal, whose wise preaching form the core principles of the institute. The Institute focuses on striking interactions between statistical science and natural and social sciences, which will help in ensuring holistic development of the science of statistics. ISI promotes research on the applications of statistics and its relationship with other disciplines. The fervor and devotion with which the institute has carried out research and developmental activities have made it an epitome of brilliance to the world community.
ISI conducts its functions from its headquarters located Baranagar in Kolkata city, West Bengal as well as from its limited number of subsidiaries located in Delhi, Chennai, Tezpur, Bangalore, and Giridih. The institute carries out various activities pertaining to statistical science. It promotes research on the development of theoretical statistics and its role in other disciplines. Major areas where the institute focuses its research activities include Statistics, Mathematics, Quantitative Economics, and Information Science. All its affairs come directly under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSP) of the Government of India. Sanghamitra Bandhopadhyay is the current director of the institute but only in the pro tem capacity.
Full Form of ISI: Inter-Services Intelligence
ISI Full Form stands for Inter–Services Intelligence. The name refers to the Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence that is the top-notch army operated intelligence agency functioning in Pakistan. It shoulders the tasks of securing national security, collecting relevant intelligence to detect and apprehend anti-nationalist or terrorist activities, and undertaking overall intelligence examination of the Government of Pakistan.
The ISI is the most powerful intelligence agency among three intelligence services operating in the country. The other agencies in Pakistan are the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and Military Intelligence (MI). The level of control and political support ISI receive stands unprecedented for any intelligence agency in the country.
A brief history of the origin and subsequent development of ISI as the country’s largest intelligence service needs special mention. It was founded a year after declaration of Independence. The primary reason for the establishment of another agency, when the Intelligence Bureau and Military Intelligence were already operational was the lack of appropriate performance and intelligence skills in those agencies. The Military Intelligence had fared badly during Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, which was due to manifest lack of cooperation with Army, Navy, and Air Forces. An ex-Indian army officer, Sir Walter Joseph Cawthorn, materialized his idea of a strong agency into ISI.
As far as the organization and constitution of the ISI is concerned, there is a head of the agency, who is addressed as the Director General and the three Deputy Directors. The Director General has to be a serving Lieutenant General in the army of Pakistan whereas the three deputy Generals work under the Director General and handle three fields of the ISI, which are the Internal Wing, External Wing, and the Foreign Relations Wing. The other staff members of the agency are appointed from army forces. Records say that ISI is the largest intelligence organization as far as the number of staff members is concerned.
ISI Full Form: Institute for Scientific Information
Full Form of ISI refers to Institute for Scientific Information. One of the internationally recognized institutes pertaining to the Intellectual Property and Science field is the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), which was founded in the year 1960 by Eugene Garfield. Eugene Garfield is a renowned American scientist, who is one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. The Institute has been acquired by Thomas Scientific and healthcare in the year 1962 and is now known by the name Thomas ISI.
ISI offers high quality, comprehensive bibliographic database, which includes indexing of citation, and analysis of the same. We can say that ISI does what Eugene Garfield likes the most. The ISI has a vast database on the citation that covers about hundreds and thousands of journals. It also offers services relating to the Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). These three index forms can be accessed on the institute’s Web of Knowledge database, which is an online subscription facility on scientific citation indexing and is run by Thomas Reuters.
The institute engages in academic and research contribution, as it publishes its own annual journal named Journal Citation Reports where impact factor is discussed. Currently, there are about 14,000 journals that are maintained by the database of the ISI, which covers approximately 1100 arts and humanities academic as well as scientific journals. The database carries a quality indicator and determines the quality of the journal it maintains in its database.
Additionally, the ISI also engages in the publication of a newsletter named Science Watch, which publishes one research paper as a “fast breaking paper” from every 22 fields of science it covers. The Institute also publishes a list of “ISI highly cited researchers”. Thus, the institute has actively engaged itself in the field of citation indexing and has contributed much to its development.
Full Form of ISI: International Statistical Institute
ISI Full Form refers to International Statistical Institute. It is one of the most renowned and reputed associations of statisticians in the world. Also known as the ISI, it is a professional association where statisticians from around the world can come together, discuss, and conduct activities on the development of statistics. The Association or the ISI was established as early as 1885 but the preparatory work had begun from the year 1853. The institute is headquartered in the Statistics Netherlands Building situated in Den Haag- Leidschenveen, Netherlands.
The ISI has attracted many statisticians and there are about 4,000 members who are chosen by government, academic field, and private sectors. Any person who is professionally engaged in statistical studies is eligible for a membership in the association. In fact, other associations affiliated with ISI offer similar eligibility criterion.
The ISI serves as a guiding framework for about seven specialized associations. Those associations are: Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability (BS), International Association for Official Statistics (IAOS), International Association for Statistical Computing (IASC), The International Environmetrics Society (TIES), International Society for Business and Industrial Statistics (ISBIS), International Association of Survey Statisticians (IASS), and International Association for Statistics Education (IASE).
The ISI has a handful of committees, undertaking various tasks pertaining to the objectives of the association. Some of those committees relate to Astrostatistics, Agricultural sciences, History of statistics, Professional ethics, Promotion of statistics in the life sciences, Risk analysis, Sports statistics, Statistics of travel and tourism, and Women in statistics, etc.
The institute actively engages in the publication of academic and research journals and conducts international conference every two years. This conference was earlier known as the ISI session but after 2011, it is called by the name ISI World Statistics Congress.
ISI Full Form: Information Sciences Institute
Full Form of ISI refers to Information Sciences Institute. The USC Information Sciences Institute is a research and development institute based in Marina del Rey, California. The ISI is a functional unit of the University of Southern California (USC). The ISI conducts research and development activities in the field of information assessment and processing, communications and computers. Basically, its primary focus is on the information science.
The ISI is credited to have immensely contributed to the development of information sciences and has contributed especially to the progressive growth of Internet. More than 20 research agencies based in the United States fund the research programs conducted by the institute. These agencies actively engage in financial assistance in the areas of science, health, defense, national security, energy sector, and other areas. Records show that the institute receives about $60 million every year as a financial contribution from different agencies.
It must have become clear that the ISI has, in its kitty, international recognition and huge achievements that have made it one of the most sought after research institutes in the field of information science.
There are about 350 scientists, researchers, program managers, graduate students, and managerial members that form the constitution of the institute. Of the research students that are employed in the institute, about half of them are holders of doctoral degrees whereas approximately 40 researchers form part of the teaching faculty at the USC.
The current Executive Director of the ISI is Prem Natrajan, who is natural language expert interested in speech recognition and has joined the institute in the year 2013. For a long time, the ISI was spearheaded by a former IBM professional Herbert Schorr.
Full Form of ISI: Import substitution industrialization
ISI Full Form stands for Import Substitution Industrialization. Also known as ISI, refers to a popular trade policy that promotes replacement of imported goods with goods produced domestically. The underlying principle in this concept is that it is in the interest of a country to reduce dependency on foreign imports and advocate greater involvement of domestically produced goods.
This principle stems from an undeniable fact that foreign import creates a lot of pressure upon the countries, especially developing countries, which despite having resources in abundance do not have enough technical know-how and sufficient infrastructure to increase production rates. The concept has been supported by many popular economists such as Friedrich List and Alexander Hamilton. The concept was aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in the areas of production.
Around the 1980s, developing countries started doing away with the implementation of the concept due to the pressure from the world organizations namely, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, on structural adjustment programs. These organizations pressed upon the need liberalization of the market.
ISI may be a development theory but its origins are political in nature. The theory came to the forefront when many nations started incorporating it in their political structure. Rooted in trade theory, many nations have initially taken a liking to the idea behind ISI as it promoted the beloved principle of self-sufficiency.
Many economists regarded the theory and its practical implementation a capable mechanism effective enough to drive away poverty. It has been proposed by Werner Baer that the developed nations too have gone through the ISI stage, where they have directed much of their policies and resources in achieving self-sufficiency.
ISI Full Form: Intercollegiate Studies Institute
Full Form of ISI stands for Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Also known as the ISI, it refers to a non-profit educational institution based in the United States. It was founded with the purpose of advocating conventional and conservative principles and development of temperament on the same principles in colleges. The institution describes itself as an organization that believes in a limited form of government, individual liberty, private responsibility, free market, the rule of law, and traditional and conventional values and thoughts.
It will be interesting to discuss historical facts pertaining to the foundation of the institute. Frank Chodorov, who was a member of a group of libertarian thinkers known as the Old Right, established the Institute, along with William F. Buckley, who was a graduate of the prestigious Yale University. William F. Buckley was named the first President of the institute. The major change happened when William F. Buckley was succeeded by Victor Milione, who went on to become the longest serving President of the institute. He founded many publications a network for memberships, a well organized and systematic conference program, etc. He also initiated a fellowship program. ISI is credited to have bolstered the strength of the popular campus conservative movement that was popular during the 1980s.
In order to promote conservative principles, the ISI has undertaken many programs. ISI forms conservative groups on campuses, which take on the task of spreading the institute’s governing ideologies to students and teachers. It organizes annually “Polly Awards” that are aimed at exposing objectionable campus events.
ISI has also published books and guidebooks outlining its conservation ideologies. It has published many editions of “Student’s Guide To…” books that promote classical education system on campuses across the nation. One such book is the A Student’s Guide To Liberal Learning. It has also published a best-selling book titled “It takes a Family: Conservatism and the Common Good”.
Full Form of ISI: Ice Skating Institute
ISI Full Form stands for Ice Skating Institute. Previously known as the Ice Skating Institute of America, the Ice Skating Institute or the ISI refers to an association of trade for ice rinks. Apart from that and more importantly, the institute is the nodal international body that governs recreational figure skating.
The institute was established in the year 1959 with the purpose of promoting and developing skating as a popular recreating activity internationally. To carry out its objectives, ISI undertakes several developmental and promotional programs and conducts a number of competitions in different types of figure skating, speed skating, and ice hockey.
It must be noted that the Ice Skating Institute functions independently from another international skating agency, International Skating Union. The latter is concerned with Olympic-style figure skating.
The ISI testing program is an important aspect of the institute. The tests range from elementary level, which are concerned with very young skaters, to advanced tests. While the tests are generally judged by any professional member of the association, highly advanced tests are judged by persons selected by the national office. During the assessment of such highly advanced tests, it is mandatory that a video review is made.
ISI Full Form: Image Space Incorporated
Full Form of ISI stands for Image Space Incorporated. Established in the year 1992, the Image Space Incorporated or also known as the ISI is private video game developing company that is situated in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The ISI is engaged in areas relating to development of computer games, man-in-the-loop infrastructure; generation of computer image, and conducting integration of entertainment system.
While the ISI has worked in a variety of game development areas, it nevertheless focuses much upon racing and simulation games. It is the ISI, which is credited to have developed the ISImotor game engine that is now popularly used in the development of racing games. Some of the games that have used the ISImotor game engine are GT Legends, GTR2, Race 07, ARCA Sim Racing ’08, etc. Some of the games that ISI has developed are F1 2000, F1 Championship Season 2000, NASCAR Thunder 2003, SuperLeague Formula 2009: The Game, Zone Raiders, etc.