Full Form of IBM:
International Business Machines
IBM Full Form is International Business Machines. IBM is the largest company of Information Technology, in terms of the revenue gained per year. This company has held this position for the past fifty years. The products of IBM include software and hardware, for a line of application software, custom-designed microchips, storage products and business servers.
In the early years of the 1970s, interactive display terminals made by IBM were gradually replacing punched cards. With its System/3, the company jumped into the competition for computers for small business. In the 1980s, the company began to realize that the newly arrived personal computers by Apple can lead to the revolutionizing of the industry. In order to counter this, IBM introduced a series of personal computers that became a standard for use in business.
In the recent years, IBM is deriving revenue from a range of outsourcing and consulting services. IBM knows that its position of dominance is being challenged by the advent of the internet, distributed computing, personal computers and the low-cost microchip. In spite of this, competitors and investors are still impressed with the long established customer bases of IBM among Fortune hundred and middle sized businesses. It has the quality to adapt its services and products to the ever changing marketplace.
IBM Full Form – Additional Information
International Business Machines, which will hereinafter be referred to as IBM, is one of the biggest multinationals in the world. It is basically a consulting and technological corporation. The company is headquartered in Armonk, New York. The international giant is engaged in areas such as hosting, consulting services, infrastructural development, and even nanotechnology.
As mentioned before, it is one of the biggest firms in the world and has been ranked in higher positions by many reputed magazines in the world. The famous Forbes ranks IBM as the second biggest firm based in the United States of America as far as the number of workers its employees worldwide. It also ranked fourth in respect of market capitalization. Additionally, the corporation has been ranked as the ninth most money-making corporation, the 19th biggest firm in terms of revenue it generates. In respect of revenue, Forbes 2011, ranks it at 31st place.
Fortune ranks the company at first place for being the best company for leaders. Newsweek has ranked it as the best green company based in the United States of America. Interbrand names it second best global brand; Barron’s names it second most venerable company in the world, and Fast Company places IBM as the eighteenth best innovative corporation. Thus, IBM has in its kitty some of the biggest accolades any corporation can get.
Apart from the aforementioned accolades and recognition, the corporation has established an extensive research network that has marvelously conducted several breakthrough types of research and as of the year 2013, it has held maximum patents in respect of its business. IBM cannot be summarized in two or three paragraphs and needs more elaboration. Thus, the following heads will highlight some interesting aspects about IBM. So, here are five facts about IBM are as follows:
History behind IBM
It all started in the 1880s when major breakthrough technologies emerged that went on to redefine technology and lead to the formation of International Business Machines. In the year 1885, Julius Pitrat got patented his invention computer scale; Alexander Dey then went on to invent the dial recorder in the year 1888; Herman Hollerith got patent for his Electric Tabulating Machine in the year 1889; and finally, in the same year 1889, Willard Bundy caused the invention of time clock for the purposes of recording the arrival as well as departure time of workers on paper tape.
In the year 1911, the four companies of the aforementioned inventors were consolidated together under the aegis of Charles Ranlett Flint that led to the formation of Computer-Tabulating-Recording Company (abbreviated as CTR). The office of CTR was located in Endicott. Until the year 1993, the consolidated companies retained their identities and eventually they were integrated. Eventually, the name International Business Machines emerges and the history is changed. Years have gone and IBM has ventured into different areas relating to science and computer technology.
The World Bank and the IBM entered into a historic agreement for the introduction of financial swaps for public in the year 1981 and this eventually went on set an industry standard. IBM entered into major acquisitions such as the acquisition of Strongloop in the year 2015; acquisition of Lighthouse Security Group in the year 2014; in the year 2005, the corporation acquired Micromuse; in the year 2002, the corporation acquired the consulting firm PwC.
Corporate affairs of IBM
The corporate affairs of the corporation are managed by a Board of Directors. The Board of Directors comprises some of the most powerful personalities in the world. All these personalities come from different spheres of life and are often regarded as a group of strongest board of directors.
In the year 2014, the corporation made a major announcement that it would do away with bonuses for the fiscal year 2013 due to reported 5 percent drop in sales and about one percent decline in overall net profit in the year 2012. The dropping sales have forced the corporation to restructure corporate framework so as to prevent degrading revenues of the corporation.
Facilities of IBM across the globe
IBM is a multinational corporation, whose presence is virtually everywhere on the planet. It enjoys impressive goodwill and reputation across the globe and therefore, there are many facilities established to ensure that the needs are appropriately met. The corporation has installed 12 research laboratories across the globe.
All these research laboratories function under IBM Research, whose headquarters are located at Thomas J. Watson Research Center in the city of New York. There are labs such as Almaden lab in California, India lab in the city of Delhi, Africa lab situated in Nairobi, Austin Lab located in Texas, Ireland lab located in Dublin, etc.
There are major campus installations of the company located in Montreal, Atlanta, and Paris. There are software labs situated in Rome, Toronto, Johannesburg, Yamato, and Hakozaki. The corporation also has in its operation Hursley House, IBM Scientific Center, IBM Rochester, Canada Head Office, and Somers Office Complex.
Research and Development of IBM
IBM has engaged in many research and development activities and this is pretty much evident from the number of patents it has for its inventions. The establishment of IBM Research was a major event in the year 1945, as it led to the formation of the biggest industrial research organization operating in the world. It operates through its 12 laboratories that are located on 6 continents. From these labs, many breakthrough types of research and developments have emerged.
Some of the worldwide famous inventions emerging from IBM include Floppy Disk, Electronic Keypunch, relational Database, Watson Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Machine, Hard Disk Drive, Universal Product Code (abbreviated as UPC), Financial Swap, etc. The corporation is engaged in Project Sapphire, which is aimed at creating computers that will provide consulting services to undergraduate students from engineering and computer science streams.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (abbreviated as EPA) has named the company as a part of the top twenty companies in the world that offer best workplaces. The award recognizes IBM’s efforts to reduce air pollution and provision of benefits to its customers and employees.
IBM is collaborating with Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co. Ltd. (abbreviated as TOK) for the purposes of establishing cost-effective methods for producing products running on solar energy such as Copper-Indium-gallium- Selenide (abbreviated as CIGS) solar cells. The company has engaged researchers in nanotechnology, photovoltaic cell technology, etc.
Full Form of IBM – International Brotherhood of Magicians
IBM Full Form stands for International Brotherhood of Magicians. IBM is basically an organization that has amateur and professional stage and close-up magicians as its members. It has nearly fifteen thousand members throughout the world. The headquarters of this organization is in Missouri. It has more than three hundred local groups. These local groups are referred to as Rings and are present in over thirty nations. A large concentration of Rings can be found in Canada and the US. However, the members of this organization are from a minimum of eighty different nations. A monthly periodical, called the Linking Ring, is published by the IBM. It covers events and shows in the magic community, features various tricks, and publishes interviews taken from different magicians.
Len Vintues, (or Melvin McMullen) founded the IBM in the year 1922 in Manitoba, along with Don Rogers (or Ernest Schieldge) and Gene Gorden (or Gordon Avery) of New York. The International Brotherhood of Magicians is different from other magic clubs like the England’s Magic Circle and USA’s SAM (Society of American Magicians) since the IBM was started by those magicians who lived outside the main towns and cities. These magicians were unable to take part in the meetings of the magic club and used postal services to keep in contact with the other members of the club.
The first local group of the IBM called the Ring 1, was established by Gene Gorden in New York. Eventually, the original Ring 1 was disbanded, and the Ring 1’s vacated title was later assumed by St. Louis (Missouri), and it still holds this title. A new club, referred to as the Ring 1, has been formed in Rochester since then.
The membership of the IBM is open to professional as well as amateur magicians. All those who collect magic effects and apparatus can also gain its membership. The minimum age of the active members is eighteen years. The minimum age of the youth members is between seven to seventeen years. Members active in this organization must have an interest in magic for a minimum of two years. For youth members, the same is for one year.
IBM Full Form – Inclusion Body Myositis
Full Form of IBM refers to Inclusion Body Myositis. IBM is primarily an inflammatory disease of the muscles. This disease results in the wasting of proximal and distal muscles, commonly in the legs and arms and weakness. The IBM is of two types: sIBM (sporadic inclusion body myositis), and hIBM (hereditary inclusion body myopathy).
In sIBM, there are two processes that may occur in the muscle cells. These processes are the degenerative and autoimmune processes and may occur in parallel. The T cells’ cloning is the characteristic of the inflammatory aspect, and it appears that specific antigens drive it for invading muscle fibers. The holes appearing in vacuoles (muscle cells), abnormal protein deposition in filamentous inclusions and cells characterize the degeneration aspect.
The weakness may be felt slowly, that is, over years or months. It steadily progresses, and generally, results in wasting of the leg and arm muscles. It commonly occurs in men as compared to women. Due to this disease, it becomes impossible for patients to do their daily activities. The majority of the patients need devices for help within five to ten years of the onset of the symptoms. Although sIBM is not fatal, there is always a risk of getting serious injuries, since the chances of falling increases. One potentially fatal complication that is common among the patients suffering from this disease is the dysphagia. It does not have any effective treatment.
Although sporadic inclusion body myositis is quite rare, it is highly prevalent. It is the most common reason for the occurrence of inflammatory myopathy in individuals whose age is over fifty years. According to some Australian Researchers, the chance of occurrence of the IBM varies among different ethnic groups and population. The present prevalence was fourteen per million in the entire population. The same was fifty-one per million populations among those who are over fifty years of age. Thus, according to the numbers, sIBM is related to the age. Its chances of occurrence increase with the increase of age.
Full Form of IBM – Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc
IBM Full Form stands for Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. The IBM is a destructive plate boundary of a tectonic plate. It extends from over Tokyo (in Japan) to Guam and is over twenty-eight thousand kilometers. It includes the Mariana Islands, Bonin Islands, and the Izu Islands. The majority of the portion of this system is present below the sea-level. It lies in the Western Pacific Ocean, that is, along with the Philippine Sea plates eastern margin. It is well known for the Challenger Deep, the deepest gash in the solid surface of the Earth.
The subduction process of the Western side of the Pacific Plate resulted in the formation of the IBM arc system. Presently, this system subducts early cretaceous to mid-Jurassic lithosphere. Its north has younger lithosphere, and south has older lithosphere. It also includes the oldest oceanic crust (nearly one hundred and seventy years old). The rate of subduction may vary from one inch (south) to six centimeters (north).
The island arcs comprise of the volcanic islands. According to researchers, the volatiles, that is, steam released from the trapped water and additional gasses, resulted in the formation of these islands. The subducted plate, reaching a sufficient depth causes the high temperature to release the volatiles. The density of the oldest part of the crust of the Pacific plate increased, the formation of the associated trenches took place.
The IBM can be regarded as a good example of IOCM (intra-oceanic convergent margin). These margins are built on the topmost layer of the tectonic plate’s oceanic portion, also called oceanic crust. It fundamentally contests with the island arcs that are made on the continental crust like the Andes or Japan.
Nearly seventy-six volcanoes have been identified along thirteen hundred and seventy kilometers of the Marana arc. The grouping of these volcanoes is done into sixty volcanic centers. Twenty-six of these are volcanically or hydrothermally active. The overall density of the volcanic centers is 4.4/100 kilometers of the arc.
IBM Full Form – Indian Bureau of Mines
Full Form of IBM stands for Indian Bureau of Mines. IBM is a government organization under the Mines Department of the Indian Government. It is responsible for promoting scientific and systematic development, as well as the optimum utilization of the country’s mineral resources. For achieving this objective, the organization collects data and organizes the obtained data in the form of a database. This data includes all information pertaining to mining exploration, and the prospecting minerals and mines of the nation.
The Indian Bureau of Mines also functions as the NTR (National Technical Regulator) of the Mining sector and forms various systems, procedures, and regulations for guiding the state government. It also builds up the system’s capacity, not only in the regulatory work but also at the developmental work at the state and central level. It helps by establishing coordination mechanisms between the states, research institutes, all stakeholders, central government and academic institutes for developing solutions to the problems and demands encountered by the industry.
The IBM acts as a bridge between the user industry and research institute and promotes research on all practical aspects of the industry. It also offers technical consultancy services. It takes part in global collaborative projects in the regulated area and the mineral sector development. It gives proper advice to the government on all issues related to the mining sector. It also undertakes activities related to mineral beneficiation, geology, and the environment.
There are six divisions of the IBM. The first division is the Minerals Regulation and Development Division, which makes sure that the minerals are conserved, and ensures the scientific and systematic development of mines. The Mineral Processing is the second division, which is engaged in the research and development in the area of mineral beneficiation. The technical consultancy services are offered by the Technical Consultancy and Mining Research, which forms the fourth division of the IBM. The fifth division, which is the Mineral Economics Division, offers advisory services and information support on issues such as taxation, mining leases, and mineral resources to the Mineral Industry and the Government.
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