Full Form of GSLV :
GeoSynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSLV Full Form is GeoSynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle. GSLV is a medium lift launch vehicle built by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to launch INSAT communication satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The development project of the GSLV commenced in the year 1990 with the aim of obtaining launch capability for India’s geosynchronous satellites. Until the development of GSLV, India has largely depended on Europe and the United States of America for the launch of its INSAT class of satellites. The system was created for the purposes of enabling India to effectively launch satellites without the need of support of foreign providers and rockets.
The mechanism of GSLV makes use of major components, which have been already proven in the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (abbreviated as PSLV) in the form of the liquid feeder Vikas engineer and the S125/S139 Solid Rocket Booster. The third level was obtained from a Russian company named Glavcosmos by virtue of an agreement signed in the year 1991. However in the following year when the United States of America imposed sanctions on Russia, the latter backed out from the 1991 deal. ISRO then started creating its own cryonic stage under the Cryonic Upper Stage Project in the year 1992. The first development flight was launched in the year 2001.
GSLV has three stages. The first stage comprises 139 tonnes of HTBP based solid propellant which makes the core of the vehicle. This solid rocket motor is augmented by four liquid strap-on motors each comprising 40 tonnes of liquid propellant Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) as an oxidizer. The second stage of the vehicle is made up of Vikas Engine which carries liquid propellant and generates about 680 KN thrust. The third stage is the cryogenic upper stage which comprises liquid hydrogen (LH2) as fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer.
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