INDIA Full Form can be Independent Nation and Democratic in Asia (or) Independent Nation Declared in August. The term INDIA is not a short form or abbreviation or acronym. INDIA is a country in Asia. Technically speaking, INDIA doesn’t have a full form. However, there are funny full form or funny expansion for INDIA like the ones mentioned above.
The name India was originally obtained from the famous Sindhu or Indus River, which the Persians called ‘Hindu’ (as they happened to pronounce the first letter ‘S’ with ‘H’). The Greeks called India and Indians as ‘Indioi’, which meant ‘people who lived on the other side of Indus’.
India has been called by more than one name. ‘Bharat’ is one among them which represents the great king Bharata. Hindustan is another name derived from a Persian word which means ‘Land of Hindus’. Hindustan is often used as the synonym for India, though it basically represented the northern part of India.
Full Form of INDIA – Additional Information:
Blessed with a glorious, diverse history, a historian or any history enthusiast would not find a place better than India to carry out his adventure towards exploration of the past. It is impossible to sum up the history of India in just one article, even a book. We can begin with Indus Valley Civilization that marks establishment of one of the first well- structured, organized, surprisingly modern human settlements since early ages. Soon after, Aryans stepped their foot on the land of India and ushered in a change of societal, political, and economic system.
The nation was already divided in small and medium sized kingdoms until the famed Gupta Dynasty unified them together into one, bulbous kingdom that brought in several progressive measures, which India still owe to it. After all, Gupta Dynasty is often regarded as Golden age. Followed by Gupta dynasty, there were Mauryan Dynasty, which gave birth to some of the legendary Kings like Ashoka and Chandragupta Maurya. Eventually, there were Muslim dynasties, which ruled for approximately two centuries until the infamous British colonization that subjugated India for 200 years.
Often referred to as Post-Classical Period, the Medieval Period covers the time period from 8th century to 18th century in Indian subcontinent. Though many historians believe that Medieval Period culminates with the rise of Mughal empire in 1526, the generally shared view is that the Medieval Period is divided into periods, namely Early Medieval Period, which commences from 8th century and concludes at 13thcentury, and Late Medieval Period, which starts from 13th century and ends with 18th century.
The Medieval Period has witnessed rise of some of the most powerful, flourishing kingdoms, which have gifted Indian history glorious colours but have also cursed it with some of the bloodiest wars like Battle of Panipath, etc. Delhi Sultanate, Chola Dynasty, Maratha Empire, Vijaynagar Empire, Western Chalukya Empire, Yadava Dynasty, etc were some notable kingdoms during the Medieval Period. The major contribution of these kingdoms or to say otherwise, The Medieval Period is in the commendable progress in administration, defence, and architecture.
Early modern India:
The time frame of this period is broiled in a debate, though as per international historical standards, the period commences from 16th century. Thus, many historians have claimed that the Mughal Empire belongs to this period meanwhile there are dissenting claims as well. The Early Modern Period marks the defeat of the Lodhi Dynasty at the hands of Babur, who invaded India in 1526 and marked the rise of a powerful dynasty, the Mughal Dynasty that gave India Akbar, Humayun, Jahangir and the famed Shahjahan. The period was marked with beautiful Mughal art, literature and of course, architectural developments like Red Fort, Taj Mahal, etc.
In South India, the much venerable Vijaynagar Empire faced a fatal blow at the hands of the Deccan Sultanates in 1565. After a brief rule, Deccan Sultanates were conquered by Mughals. The main role players in this period were undoubtedly Mughals and they continued to remain so until East India Company entered the territories of India and started marking its presence in different nook and corners of the country. The Mughals remained even after the colonization of the country however, they had lost much power and influence upon the administrative, economic and social matters of the country.
Despite overlapping time frames among different historical periods, the Modern Period is generally considered to begin from 17th century, the period when Europeans stepped onto the Indian Territory that eventually marked the decline of Mughal rule in the country.
The East Indian Company had started setting up its trade centres in various regions of the country. The Company gained momentum with the defeat of Siraj-ud-daulah, the then Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey. Afterwards, the Company started expanding and before anyone could realize established itself as the master of the nation. India was now the colony of the British.
The British administration imposed ruthless laws upon Indians, who could not help but helplessly observe them. This, however, did not stop resentment among people to thwart as the British administration eventually faced the first revolt of Independence, or infamously referred to as Sepoys’ Mutiny by British Historians, in 1857.
Mahatma Gandhi became the face of human liberation and non-violence. He stonewalled many attempts of the British administration and forced them to change many of its policies. He had organized the famous Dandi March, Quit India Movement, etc and mobilized the Indian population together. He is credited to have led the independence of the country.
Geography of India:
India might be the seventh largest country in the world but has mastered geographical diversity in many ways. It is arguably the most geographical diverse nation in the world, with a wide range of flora and fauna adding to its glory. There are different kinds of mountains, categorized according to their geographical and physiographical features. There exist the Great Mountains of the North like the Pir Panjal Range, the Ladakh Range, the East Karakoram range, etc; In the South, there are Western and Eastern Ghats, lining up the Southern coastal boundaries. India is blessed with one of the most fertile plains in the world, the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Also known as Great Plains, the plain is dominated by three rives namely, the Brahmaputra, the Ganges, and the Indus.
The plain is categorized into four belts namely, the Bhabar Belt, the Terai Belt, the Bhangar Belt, the Khader Belt, etc. India is home to one of the largest deserts in the world, the Thar Desert. The desert has Luni river flow through it although it receives very little rainfall and is usually dry. Characterized by rough, uneven topography, the desert stretches to Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan. There are also Coastal Plains, the much talked about Deccan Plateau, diverse climatic conditions, the natural ambiance of North-East, etc. India does not fall short in any aspect, that is for sure.
Biodiversity of INDIA:
India is a repository of biodiversity. India houses some of the largest population of flora and fauna and this makes it more incumbent upon the Indian administration to protect and preserve its biodiversity from post-modern, industrial threats. There are about 2,00,000 species in India and there are many species of flora and fauna not yet discovered.
Industrialization and globalization have resulted in much feared decline of the biodiversity, which ultimately impact the natural ecosystem that every human is obliged to protect. The ambitious industrial activities of humans have adversely affected biodiversity, which if not secured, can vanish from earth.
India is gifted with finest species of flora and fauna, residing in some of the most sensitive ecosystems of the worlds. Take for example, wetlands in India are highly susceptible to disturbances therefore, special care must be given towards them. Wetlands are home to migratory birds and provide necessary atmospheric requirements during breeding period. Their vulnerable nature has resulted in the industrial activities taking heavy toll on them.
Marine environment and forests comprise havens for biodiversity to flourish. Uncontrolled deforestation and discharge of hazardous pollutants in the marine resources have caused great upheaval in the natural ecosystems and have drastically reduced flora and fauna in these environments.
The Constitution of India has provided for three organs, fairly independent of each other, to function in a coordinate manner so as to ensure a proper administration of the country. The Legislature, The Executive and the Judiciary are constitutionally powered-up pillars of the country’s administration, which must act according to the principles contained in the Constitution. The main politics run in Legislature though. The Legislature of the country or the Parliament is the Central Legislative body, which takes up the task of drafting laws for the country. It comprises two houses namely, Rajya Sabha (teh Upper House) and Lok Sabha (the Lower House).
The former represents states in the quasi -federal country whereas the latter comprises persons who have been directly elected by the people of India through elections. In Lok Sabha, there would be the political party, which has enjoyed mandate in elections and opposition party or parties. India had its first general elections in 1951, which were won by the Indian National Congress that continued to dominate Indian politics until 1977, when first non-congress party came to power. The 1990s saw the end of single party domination and rise of coalition governments.
The former represents states in the quasi -federal country whereas the latter comprises persons who have been directly elected by the people of India through elections. In Lok Sabha, there would be the political party, which has enjoyed mandate in elections and opposition party or parties. India had its first general elections in 1951, which were won by the Indian National Congress that continued to dominate Indian politics until 1977 when the first non-congress party came to power. The 1990s saw the end of single party domination and the rise of coalition governments.
Government structure of INDIA:
The Constitution of India provides for a quasi-federal system of governance that is there are Union Government and state governments. The governments at these levels contribute in effective discharge of the purpose for which the Constitution was written down. The Union Government, popular known as Central Government, is the central governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. The Central Government functions from the capital of the country, New Delhi. The Central Government is responsible for setting forth central laws, governing the length and breadth of the nation. Some of the central legislations are Indian Penal Code (IPC), Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), etc.
At state levels, there are State governments, which are allotted their share on the basis of norms incorporated in the Constitution. Like Central Government, which comprises council of ministers and the Prime Minister, state governments have members of parallel denomination except that the council of ministers is headed by Chief Minister. A State government can make laws only on subjects mentioned in Subject List and Concurrent List mentioned in Schedule VII of the Constitution.
Indian Armed Forces:
It must have already become clear that we are talking about the military powerhouses of the Republic of India. Indian armed Force consists of three units: Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. Indian Army is further supported by three paramilitary forces namely, Assam Rifles, Indian Coasts Guard and Special Frontier Force and various other Special units. The Constitution of India very categorically provides that the President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces, although many decisions pertaining to Indian Armed Forces have to go through scrutiny of Ministry of Defence.
The Indian Armed Forces have primarily four tasks to perform:
- To protect the territory of India
- To protect the country from foreign invasion or insurgency.
- To support civilians in case disasters, as in case of Chennai Floods.
- As a member of United Nations, India is committed to provide armed support in UN peacekeeping missions.
The arms and ammunition are generally imported from foreign nations however, many indigenous corporations like HAL. BHEL, Midhani, etc also contribute in the arsenal cache. It is interesting to note that Indian Armed Forces are the largest importer of arms in the world.
Economy of India:
India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In fact, it became the fastest growing economy in the last quarter of 2014, replacing People’s Republic of China. A better news is that for the first time ever, India topped the World Bank’s growth outlook for the period of 2015-2016 as the economy grew to 7.3% in 2014-15 and is expected to reach the target of 7.5-8.3% in 2015-16.
The Stock Exchange System of the country is internationally considered reliant and strong. Two major stock exchanges, Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange of India, had a market capitalization of US$1.71 trillion and US$1.68 trillion respectively as of February 2015 and were 11th and 12th in the rank chart presented by World federation of Exchanges.
India may be predominantly poor but it does house third largest Billionaire’s pool in the world, with total number of billionaires in 2014 reaching to 97. In fact, India is also home to fourth largest number of ultra-high-net-worth households that have more than 100 million dollars.
Demographics of India:
It is a matter of time that India overtakes China as the most populous country in the world. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.277 billion people (2015), more than a sixth of the world’s population. Surveys and reports claim that with the rate of population growth still on rise, India is likely to become the most populated nation by 2022.
India is nevertheless one of the youngest countries in the world, in terms of number of younger individuals. India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35, unlike countries like Japan and Italy, which are going though the aging crisis.
The rise of population is ascribed to the lack of awareness, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, the traditional culture that prefers girls over boys, the cultural penchant towards having more male children who shall contribute in the economics of the household, etc. While China’s one-child policy was a controversial step, it has nevertheless bridled the rate of growth by means heavy levies, penalties, etc. On the other side, Indian administration has not taken any effective measure in this regard.
Culture of India:
Indian culture is a beautiful patchwork of multitude of cultures and traditions that give it unmatched glory and colour. India is home to diverse cultures cohabiting peacefully and harmoniously. From the east to the west and from the north to the south, you will experience entirely distinct cultures brewing together in the society.
India is the birthplace of some of the major religions of the world like Hinduism, jainism and Sikhism, etc. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world’s third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether. Despite several Hindu-Islamic clashes in the countries, which have even resulted in immense bloodshed, both communities have lived much peacefully and as compared to other nations, they blend together more cordially. Tolerance is strong here, if not stronger.
Cultures bring along delicious foods, which are incomparable. From Dosas and Uttapam in the South to Chola Bhatura in the North to Khar from the North-east to Bati Chokha from the West, you can never fall short of sumptuous dishes in the country.
Language is the stronghold of the Indian culture. There are 122 major languages and 1599 other languages, which have their own distinct dialects depending upon the region. The languages are often divided into Indo-Aryan and Dravidian category, where the majority of the population speaks the former. Indian culture has much to offer and it is impossible to explore it in few words.
Sports in INDIA:
Sport is in the blood of India, particularly Cricket. Indians take cricket more seriously than their life, because often it is a matter of self-respect. While many associate India with cricket, there many other sports that are often overlooked, perhaps because the sport associations of the country do not pay much attention to them.
Hockey is often considered as the country’s National Game though the Government of India has recently denied that. Nevertheless, India has fared well in Hockey as until 1970s, it dominated the Hockey world by winning eight Olympic Medals. Recently the performance of the Hockey teams has been dismal and much has been blamed on the sport associations responsible for its management.
Another sport that has surged to popularity in recent decade is Football. Football is geographically limited to Northeast regions of the country, however with the worldwide popularity of football, other regions have seen rise in football fandom. Other sports, which are becoming popular, are boxing, wrestling, basketball, badminton. Most of the popularity is credited to certain individuals, who have excelled in such sports like Saina Nehwal, Mary Kom, Sushil Kumar, etc.
Facts about INDIA:
- INDIA is the second populated country in the world with 1.2 billion people.
- INDIA is the largest democracy in the World.
- INDIA has 3.3 Million sq. km area with 7517 km coastline.
- The national Flag of INDIA has 3 colors. It has saffron color at the top, white color in the middle, and dark green color at the bottom of the flag each having equal proportion.
- The National Emblem consists of 4 lions facing four directions which is the replica of the Lion of Sarnath. (Sarnath is a place near Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India).
- The national Anthem of India (The poem Jana Gana Mana) was composed by the Nobel Prize winning poet Rabindranath Tagore.
- The national animal of INDIA is Tiger and national bird is Peacock.
- The national flower of INDIA is Lotus, national fruit is Mango and national Tree is Banyan Tree.
- INDIA got independence on August 15th, 1947 and became Republic in January 1950.
- Mahatma Gandhi is considered to be the father of the nation and whose birthday of October 2nd is declared as national holiday.
- INDIA has a parliamentary system which is headed by the Prime Minister. The prime minister along with his council of ministers advises the President of India who is the head of the state.
- The capital of INDIA is New Delhi and it has 29 States & 7 union territories.
- The Indian currency is called Rupee.
- The supreme court is the highest judicial body in INDIA.