ECG Full Form Name

Full Form of ECG :


ECG Full Form is Electrocardiogram. It refers to the medical procedure which checks for problems related to the activity of the heart. It reveals the pattern of electrical activity of the human heart. It is also known as EKG. It is a painless process, which indicates how fast the heartbeat is. It also shows if the rhythm of a heartbeat is appropriate as it is meant to be under normal conditions. ECG also shows the timing and the strength of the electrical signals passing through the heart. Basically, this test or procedure can detect various heart-related problems like arrhythmias, heart attacks, heart failures, etc.

ECG Full Form – Additional Information

Electrocardiography, which is also known as EKG or ECG but for the purposes of this article will be referred to as ECH throughout, refers to the process involved in the recording of electrical activity of the heart over a certain time period by placing electrodes directly on the skin. These electrodes have the capability to detect small electrical changes on skin that result from an electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing of the heart muscle during every heartbeat. ECG is usually performed during cardiology test.

In a typical 12 lead ECG, there are ten electrodes that are placed on the skin, usually around the limbs and chest surface. The magnitude of the electrical potential of the heart is measured from different 12 angles and then recorded over every 10 seconds. A graph of voltage versus time is generated by this procedure and this graph is referred to as electrocardiogram, which is also known as EKG or ECG.

ECG can potentially convey a lot of valuable information relating to the structure and function of the heart. An ECG can be utilized for the purpose of measuring the rhythm and rate of heartbeats, the position, and size of heart chambers, the effects consequential to cardiac drugs, etc. ECG is an important medical procedure and is now very commonly used in medical science. It has many structural features, functions, and historical facts that must be known to all. So, here are five facts about ECG that everyone must know.

History behind ECG

The origin of the word electrocardiograph or electrocardiogram is Greek. It is derived from the word electro, which relates to electrical activity and kardio which means heart, and graph which means to write. The earliest known use of a procedure similar to that of ECG dates back to the year 1872. Alexander Muirhead has reportedly attached wires to the wrist of a sick patient for recording the heartbeat. It happened at St Bartholomew’s Hospital.

Augustus Waller, who worked at St Mary’s Hospital situated in London, formulated electrocardiograph machine that comprised of Lippmann Capillary Electrometer, which is affixed on a projector. A major breakthrough event occurred when Willem Einthoven, who worked in the Netherlands, made use of a string galvanometer, which he had invented in the year 1901. The device was sensitive and more receptive. In the year 1924, Einthoven was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on the invention and further development of ECG.

Medical uses of ECG

The primary function of ECG is to understand the structure as well as the function of the human heart. Some of the areas where the use of electrocardiograph is indicated are cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac stress testing, fainting, biotelemetry, Computed Tomography Angiography (abbreviated as CTA), Magnetic Resonance Angiography (abbreviated as MRA), seizures, etc.

The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that electrocardiography is not used for routine check-ups where there are no symptoms  and the patient shows fewer risks of coronary heart disease. The recommendation is made on the fact that ECG may indicate the existence of a problem, which may lead to misdiagnosis.ECG is continuously conducted on those patients that are critically ill and undergoing anesthesia.


An Electrocardiograph is an instrument that is used for the purpose of performing Electrocardiography and generates electrocardiogram. An instrument amplifier is a fundamental component in an electrocardiograph, which is essential for recording voltage difference between leads and amplification of the signal.

Previous editions of electrocardiographs were constructed with the help of analog electronics and the signals produced would be printed on paper. Contemporary electrocardiographs make use of analog-to-digital converters that causes conversion to a digital signal.

There are other additional components included in electrocardiograph:

  • Defibrillation protection
  • Electrostatic discharge
  • Right leg driver

A traditional electrocardiograph design generally includes a keyboard, screen, and printer attached on the small wheeled cart. The electrocardiogram often includes rhythm algorithm that generates a digital interpretation of electrocardiogram.


The entire thing about the interpretation of ECG involves interpretation of heart’s electrical conduction system. Normal conduction commences in a normal pattern and if there is a deviation, then these show pathological signs. There is a commonly prevalent misunderstanding about ECG being equated with the mechanical pumping of the heart. Take for example pulseless electrical activity, which leads to the production of an ECG but there are no pulses that are felt. Thus, interpretation is all about pattern recognition. The theory of electrocardiography is used as a guide for the purposes of interpretation and is rooted in the concept of electromagnetics.


The following findings can be obtained on electrocardiography such as Premature Atrial Contraction (abbreviated as PACs), Premature Ventricular Contraction (abbreviated as PVCs), Sinus Bradycardia, Supraventricular Tachycardia, Wide complex Tachycardia, Pre-excitation syndrome, Myocardial Infarction, Acute pericarditis, Brugada syndrome, Sick Sinus Syndrome, Atrial flutter, Torsades de pointes, sinoatrial arrest, Sinus Arrhythmia, Long QT syndrome, and ST depression etc.

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