Full Form of CSMA:
Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CSMA Full Form is Carrier Sense Multiple Access. CSMA is an MAC (Media Access Control) protocol that helps a node to search and verify the presence or absence of another traffic before it can start its own transmission on a shared and common transmission medium. The functioning process of CSMA is simple. At first, a transmitter searches for any ongoing transmission on the shared medium.
Then it tries to detect the carrier signal of the ongoing transmission. Then the node waits till the transmission is complete, and then it starts its own transfer. In CSMA, multiple nodes are connected to a common medium. This allows all the other nodes to detect the carrier signal of the transmission being done by a particular node. 1- persistent, P – persistent, non-persistent and O – persistent are the four types of access modes that are used in CSMA.
It can be categorized into three parts namely CSMA/CD ( a set of rules to determine the network device response when two devices try to function at the same time on the same channel and thus it detects the collision of signals), CSMA/CA ( a network contention protocol to avoid signal collision by listening to any signal that is being transmitted at a certain point of time), and Virtual time CSMA (a protocol to avoid signal collision by freezing the virtual clock if an ongoing transmission is detected).