Full Form of CNG :
Compressed Natural Gas
CNG Full Form is Compressed Natural Gas. CNG is nothing but Methane gas stored at a very high pressure. This can be used to replace petrol, propane or LPG, diesel, etc. Since it is natural gas, it can easily disperse when it leaks and hence considered very safe. Most often, CNG is collected from wastewater treatment, landfills, or over oil deposits. The application of CNG includes automobiles designed with CNG compatibility or dual fuel. Vehicles like pick up trucks, trains, school buses, etc. make use of CNG due to its cost-effective and environmental-friendly features. Pakistan, Iran, and places in India like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, etc., widely use CNG. Several other cities in India such as Kanpur, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, etc. also use CNG.
CNG Full Form – Additional Information
Compressed Natural Gas is basically methane gas which is stored at high pressure. It can be utilized in place of petrol (also known as gasoline), propane or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Abbreviated as LPG), and diesel fuel. Combustion of CNG generates very less undesirable gasses as compared to other fuels mentioned before. What is more beneficial about CNG is that it is relatively safer than most of the fuels presently used. It is especially safer in the case of an oil spill, as air is heavier than natural gas and hence, the latter is dispersed quickly when released. It can be found in landfills, water treatment plants (where it is called biogas), and oil deposits.
As the name suggests, CNG is produced by the compression of natural gas (which is chiefly composed of Methane). The compression is done by less than one percent of the total volume occupied by it at Standard Atmospheric Pressure. CNG is generally stored in tough containers usually at a pressure ranging between 20-25 Mpa. CNG is widely used in automobile industry, particularly in modified automobiles that use traditional gasoline or Internal Combustion Engine. Such vehicles are extensively used in countries such as Iran, India, Pakistan. These vehicles are becoming increasingly popular beyond Asian continents such as South America, Europe, and North America because of the increasing prices of gasoline.
Many countries, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, have launched transit vehicles that make use of CNG-based engines to reduce environmental pollution. Although CNG is a good alternative to many fuels currently used, there is one big barrier. The cost incurred and difficulties in placement of fuel tanks comprise a major barrier. There are many features of CNG, which must be studied so that one can truly appreciate the relevance of this fuel in the contemporary world. This is especially important from the vantage point of environmental protection. So, here are five points about CNG that everyone must know about:
Uses of CNG
CNG is a widely used fuel. Most numbers of vehicles containing CNG based engines are found in Iran, followed by Pakistan, then Argentina, Brazil, and finally India. Thus, Asia-pacific region leads in the number of such vehicles, closely followed by South America. With the rise in popularity of CNG, many interested entities have entered the market such as Toyota, General Motors, Fiat, Honda, etc.
Not many know that a gasoline vehicle can be changed into a dual fuel vehicle (a vehicle which can run on both CNG and Gasoline). Shops have been authorized to undertake the task of such conversion. The whole process involves plumbing, installation of CNG cylinder, electronics, and a CNG injection system. The cost of CNG is half of that of Gasoline. What more, it produces 90 percent lesser emissions than gasoline. So, there are strong reasons why CNG is a popular fuel, especially in the developing world.
Apart from motor vehicles, there are locomotives that run on CNG. You may question what CNG locomotives are. Well, these are essentially diesel locomotives, which have transformed so that they make use of CNG. In the year 2002, the Napa Valley Wine Train became the first locomotive to run on natural gas. In Peru, Ferrocarril central Adinno has been running on CNG ever since the year 2005.
Advantages of CNG
CNG has several advantages, which make it one of the most preferred fuels in the world. Some of the advantages have been mentioned below:
- There is a lack of lead in CNG.
- Vehicles that have CNG based engine incur fewer maintenance costs than many hydrocarbon fuel based vehicles.
- All CNG based systems are tightly sealed and therefore, there is minimal fuel loss by means of evaporation or spills.
- CNG is gaseous in nature and therefore, it easily mixes with air.
- CNG has high auto-ignition temperature, which is around 540 degree Celsius, and therefore, there is less likelihood that it will cause ignition on hot surfaces.
- CNG is environmental friendly. It results in the lesser emission of harmful pollutants such as Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides, and particulate matter (abbreviated as PM).
- It is to be noted that CNG, which is obtained from landfills, produces the lowest volume of greenhouse gasses.
Disadvantages of CNG
In general, CNG is more environment-friendly, effective, and handy. However, there is a major drawback associated with the use of CNG which must be addressed. CNG requires larger space for storage of fuel than traditional gasoline-based engines. As CNG is gaseous in nature, it requires more space for every Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (abbreviated as GGE). Due to this, the fuel storage takes up a lot of space in cars or trucks. This problem has, however, been solved by automobile manufacturers. Apart from the aforementioned drawback, CNG is a preferred choice.
International standards regarding use of CNG
Generally, international community comes with definite standards to oversight the use of natural resource across the globe, however, there is no universally applicable standard in the case of CNG. The International Organization for Standardization is the chief organization that has constituted a technical committee that works towards the creation of standards regulating fuelling stations supplying natural gas to vehicles.
Even though there is a palpable lack of codes and standards, there is still an exemplary international safety record as far as natural gas is concerned. Some of the existing standards include ISO 14469-2:2007, which is applicable to receptors and nozzles of CNG-based vehicles and ISO 15500-9:2012, which provides for specifications for the pressure regulator.
Comparison with natural gas
CNG is generally confused with Liquefied Natural Gas (abbreviated as LNG). The confusions arise from certain similarities that exist between the two such as both are forms of natural gas. There is, however, a major difference between the two and that is that CNG is gaseous in nature and stored at high pressure whereas LNG becomes liquid when stored at low pressure. As far as the cost of production is concerned, CNG is more viable than LNG. But, CMG requires larger fuel storage than LNG.
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