CCTV Full Form is Closed-Circuit Television. Also called as ‘Video Surveillance’, it comprises of video camera or cameras that capture image and transfers the same to monitors placed in desired locations. Unlike a Television, CCTV transmits signal between two points or multiple points based on the requirement and design. CCTV has several practical applications other than surveillance. All types of on-site technology with video make use of CCTV. One example would be video conference that has selective audience uses CCTV.
The main benefit of the close circuit network is, it can be recorded and viewed at a later stage. In fact, the latest developments in this help to capture image at even minimum light conditions at night. Surveillance is an interesting term, with which a gamut of controversies has recently unfolded causing uncertainty among civilians about their privacy. Despite concerns among civilians, a wide range of technologies has emerged that has transformed the manner of surveillance.
As the world progresses towards a technology oriented lifestyle, manned-surveillance is less likely to occupy prominence in future because of the proliferation of unmanned surveillance technologies that have given way to more reliable and credible modes. Surveillance means monitoring of the behavioral activities, and other information for various purposes like protection, management, direction, etc. While surveillance may include observation from a distance, the most commonly used tools of surveillance are the CCTV cameras (Closed Circuit Television) and telephonic interception through which telephonic communications are recorded for assessment.
Surveillance is often used a tool for collection of intelligence, prevention of crime, protection of persons or group or nation as a whole. It is brought into application by government controlled military organizations and intelligence agencies to tap ant-national, or terrorists activities and update related database that will be ultimately apply to the formulation and implementation of defence policies.
Unfortunately, criminals use these tools to chalk out plan of action. Thus, surveillance can be counterproductive. Moreover, and as mentioned above, surveillance is attacked as violation of privacy however, political governments assert that surveillance is essential to prevent and curb anti-national interests from materializing into violence, worse armed conflict. As mentioned above, CCTV cameras are one of the most commonly used devices for the purposes of surveillance and this would be the subject of this article.
CCTV Full Form – Additional Information
Closed-Circuit Television, also known as Video surveillance, is surveillance by means of cameras. It makes use of video cameras that record and transmit signals to a specific place and can be displayed on a restricted number of monitors used for manned observation. CCTV surveillance is distinct from typical broadcast television where signals are not freely transmitted. The applications of CCTV cameras differ, for example, they may be employed in departmental stores, banks, to keep a watch on the workers employed and customers; a state agency employ CCTV cameras to monitor activities of suspected persons.
There is an advanced version to CCTV cameras known as Digital Video Recorders (DVR) that are capable of providing surveillance service for many years without diminishing quality and performance. DVRs are equipped with extra, advanced features like motion sensing, emails alerts, greater mobility, etc. Also, body worn cameras, which are also advanced versions of CCTV cameras, are becoming exceedingly popular among common masses. Law and order enforcing agencies for the purposes of recording conversations with people or crimes scenes traditionally use these cameras. However, lately they have become popular among common public too.
CCTV cameras have changed the way surveillance is conducted. It has brought the convenience and quality that is generally lacking in manned surveillance. There are many aspects in CCTV cameras with which public are unaware about. Therefore, this article will enumerate some of the important aspects of CCTV cameras that people must know.
History of CCTV cameras
The thumb rule is to begin with history. When one takes up the task of learning about something or someone, it is important to go through the historical facts surrounding that someone or something. Historical facts enlighten the learner about various background details and help him to appreciate the relevance of the subject matter. Thus, we shall begin with the historical facts about CCTV cameras and find out how these tiny equipments have transformed the world of surveillance.
Siemens AG is the company that introduced the first CCTV camera in the world. In the year 1942, the company installed the camera at Test Stand VII in Peenemunde, Germany. The purpose of the installation was to monitor the launch of V-2 Rockets. The technological design of the camera is credited to German engineers namely, Wayne Cox, Walter Bruch, and Tashara Arnold. The United States was the second in number to have CCTV camera installed. The country witnessed the installation of the cameras in the year 1949 and the camera was named Vericon.
Eventually, the application of CCTV cameras became popular and post introduction, the United States witnessed a surge in the installation process. Olean city in the United States is the first city in the country to have installed CCTV cameras on streets to monitor criminal activities. The installation was followed by Times Square in the year 1973. Gradually, the use of CCTV cameras became popular in banks, departmental stores, hospital, schools, etc.
In the United Kingdom, the Bournemouth city witnessed the installation of its first CCTV camera in the year 1985. The installation was done on an experimental basis, whose success caused the installation of CCTV cameras in King’s Lynn in the year 1987.
Costs of CCTV cameras
The costs of CCTV cameras vary with the quality of features provided. The records show that installation of CCTV cameras in the city of Los Angeles, the United States cost from $300 to $35,00 but of course, the costs are subject to future enhancements and developments i.e. depending upon the specific requirements and level of security required from cameras.
There are many factors, which affect the pricing system of CCTV cameras. Majorly it depends upon the type of camera required. The prices will also vary depending upon the brands you chose. The type of technology used in the CCTV cameras has a great impact on the prices of the cameras, with wireless camera systems costing more than wired counterparts do. Additionally, the storage capacity of a CCTV camera differs. The more storage capacity it offers, the higher the cost is likely to be. Thus, Network Attached Storage or DVR will add on to the cost.
However, due to the rise of black market CCTV cameras are available at astonishingly low prices though these are often mere technological patchworks with poor storage capacity, life, and other necessary specifications.
Tampering with or destruction of CCTV cameras
CCTV cameras have lately become subject of vandalism and this has raised concerns among governmental authorities responsible for maintenance of law and order. The CCTV cameras are often subjected to the following forms of vandalism:
- Miscreants indulge in intentional destruction of cameras.
- Spraying substances on the cameras to block recording process and this is often done in cases of robbery or other criminal activities.
- Use of lasers is not so uncommon method of vandalism. CCTV cameras are susceptible to damage when exposed to lasers. Lasers can impair quality of image recorded and increases sensitivity of camera lens to sunlight. Longer exposure to laser can completely destroy the utility of the lens.
Technological developments in CCTV technology
Lately, there has been tremendous research on the methods of surveillance by means of technological tools, particularly CCTVA cameras. Some of the advancements made to the CCTV technology are as follows:
- We shall begin the Video Content Analysis (VCA) that possesses the capability to detect and ascertain temporal events. It is designed in such a way that it is able to automatically recognize variations in the environment and conduct comparisons between the variations recorded. The actions of the camera can be programmed to act as an alert system, alerting any change in the environment. This technology is generally applied in detection of unusual behavior in crowd.
- Facial Recognition System is yet another technological advancement that is capable of detecting a person from the visual image recorded in the camera. It is best applied in cases involving comparison of facial expressions between the recorded image and image in the database. This technology is not yet substantially developed and therefore, further research is happening to make it more efficient and accurate in the detection of facial features. This system has been used in mass surveillance but it has resulted in failures.
- Closed-circuit digital photography is yet another advancement that records high-resolution photographs.
- Then there are IP cameras, which make use of Internet protocol (IP) from Local Area Networks (LANs) to transmit recorded videos across data networks.
- Wireless Security Cameras are expensive, though greatly effective in surveillance. They are becoming popular in home surveillance programs. These cameras function without any need of cables or wires and provide fine picture quality and video recording features.
- Networking CCTV cameras, as the name suggests, are in the form of a network. It establishes a network between government and private agencies.
Prevalence of CCTV
While CCTV cameras are ubiquitous, they have the highest number of installations in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Video surveillance is utterly common in the United States, with around 30 million CCTV cameras installed across the country. Since the CCTV cameras are readily and cheaply available and easily installed, the business of CCTV is a flourishing field. The Installation drive picked up speed after the unfortunate September 9/11 attacks, causing surveillance process to take top priority in the security policy-making. Currently, there are over 4,000 surveillance cameras installed in various subway stations and the Washington Metro station uses about 6,000 CCTV cameras.
In the United Kingdom, the application of the CFTV cameras has become popular in recent times. Interestingly, a major number of CCTV cameras are installed and operated by private entities, not the government authorities. Most of them are used in the surveillance of shops and businesses. In 2011, the local governments were operating about 52,000 cameras throughout the United Kingdom. An article showed that United Kingdom had about 1.85 million cameras installed and operating in the year 2011.
Privacy issues with the use of CCTV
Use of CCTV cameras or video surveillance has invited much criticism from the crusaders of right to privacy. Major issues concern the prejudicial surveillance practices of the State carried out surreptitiously. In simple words, the surveillance gadgets have been challenged as infringements upon civil liberties.
In order to arrest the effects of anti-surveillance campaign, many countries have come up with certain regulations that monitor installation of surveillance cameras for example, in the United States, video surveillance can be operated only after a judge’s writ is obtained and this writ can be obtained quite readily. Similarly, there are legal restrictions imposed on the use of video surveillance under the Data Protection Act 1998, which mandates registration with the Data Protection Agency. The Data Protection Agency was succeeded by the Information Commissioner’s Office, which reiterated the mandate of registration with the Commissioner. Another law in the United Kingdom, Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, outlines several restricting provisions that regulate the use of information obtained through surveillance
The proponents of surveillance use the crime prevention argument to strengthen their stand. Their argument is strong, as surveillance cameras have greatly helped law enforcement agencies in monitoring criminal activities and identifying or capturing criminals or suspected persons. Such surveillance is often utilized by the intelligence agencies in drawing up criminal profiles.
The earliest use of CCTV footage in crime detection is the case of the torturous murder of the two years old James Bulger, whose murderers who were merely ten years old were apprehended when one of them was recorded in a CCTV camera. The case sparked major debate on the issue of culpability of juveniles. Well, that is not the point of discussion any way. What is important to understand is the usefulness of CCTV cameras in detection and prevention of crime.
A study conducted in both the United States and the United Kingdom showed that CCTV cameras are most effective in parking lots, where 51% decrease in crime was recorded; CCTV surveillance caused crimes on public transportation reduce by 23%. Another study conducted in Stockholm showed reduction in the rate of crime by 25%. CCTV cameras have been found ineffective in public settings and this was pointed out by the study conducted in the year 2009 by the University of Cambridge and Northeastern University, which was titled “Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.”
Traffic monitoring with the use of CCTV cameras
CCTV cameras are being exceedingly employed in the regulation of the traffic activities. With the help of CCTV cameras, deployment of traffic officers has reduced. By means of CCTV cameras, the officers are able to survey the traffic on limited monitors comfortably and undertake thorough examination of the activities transpiring on road.
While developing countries are still in the process of substantial implementation of CCTV surveillance policies, the developed countries have almost done away with the requirement of traffic officers for the regulation of the road traffic. The Developed countries have developed extensive CCTV networks to detect congestion and violation of traffic rules. The United Kingdom Highways Agency owns a CCTV network of over 3000 CCTV cameras. Many enhanced versions of CCTV cameras have come that offer better detection capabilities.
Use of CCTV cameras in retail world
The numbers show that a large proportion of CCTV cameras are used by private entities, outnumbering government owned CCTV cameras. Most of these entities install CCTV cameras to monitor their businesses. Banks, departmental stores, malls, hospitals have rapidly switched to installation of CCTV cameras because of many benefits these cameras have in their kitty. Private entities may install these cameras to scan prices, selection of goods, change of settings, deleting operations, operations with cash, etc.
Home security has caused proliferation of CCTV cameras, resulting in production of easily available, cheap cameras. These cameras are specifically designed to cater to the needs of home security. Since mid 2000, notable CCTV manufacturing companies like ADT, LiveWatch, and SimpliSafe, etc have been designing and manufacturing cameras particular to the needs of house security. These cameras often come with alarm systems, including fire and flood detection mechanisms. Home security cameras come with different specifications and technological in corporations.
CCTV Full Form – China Central Television
Full Form of CCTV stands for CCTV China Central Television. CCTV is essentially the state television broadcaster based in the People’s Republic of China. CCTV controls an extensive network of about 45 channels that broadcast various programs and is accessible to approximately one billion viewers. Many of its programs are a concoction of the documentary, social education, news, entertainment, drama, comedy, soap operas, etc. It is a predominant broadcaster in China and also the official mouthpiece of the Communist Party of China. It forms part of the “Central Three” channels in China. CCTV is presently broadcasted in six different languages and caters to regional needs.
CCTV aired its first program in the year 1958. With the rise in demands, CCTV came up with numerous channels catering to different contents. In the year 1973, it started broadcasting in color on its second channel. Till the year 1970, it aired evening programs closing down at midnight. It would also air academic programs during winter and summer vacations. By the year 1985, it became a prominent television network in the country. It got another shot of boost with the airing of the internationally acknowledged drama, Dream of the Red Chamber.
CCTV was subject to rigorous censorship directives issued by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, which eventually toned down the rigors considerably. In the year 2008, CCTV opened its new headquarters on account of its 50th anniversary. CCTV falls under the control of the State Administration of Radio, Film, and television that in turn functions under the aegis of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. It is part of the big three media stations of the country, along with Xinhua and the People’s Daily. CCTV also has an internet-based broadcaster called China Network Television (abbreviated as CNTV).
Full Form of CCTV – Capital Community Television
CCTV Full Form refers to Capital Community Television. CCTV is essentially a television broadcaster based in the United States of America that aims at disseminating community-related information by means of television and provides help to people to voice their messages. The acronym CCTV stands for Capital Community Television. CCTV is provided with funds by Marion County and City of Salem from the Franchise fees payment by Comcast. Cable Companies such as utilities make use of the public’s right of way for laying cables in order to provide services.
CCTV receives a part of whatever Comcast pays to the local government for the management of the community channels 21, 22, and 23. All the non-profits and residents situate within the limits of the city of Salem and Marion County has the eligibility for CCTV’s services. Those who live beyond these limits will have to pay a yearly fee of US$150. CCTV provides myriad services, namely: Live coverage of Marion County Commissioners and Salem City Council’s meetings; live coverage of the Salem-Keizer discussions; publicity of events and meetings; classes in Editing, Camera, and Studio Production; facilitating its channels to air messages; equipment for certified producers; live coverage of various music and other entertainment programs organised by Salem-Keizer schools.
CCTV provides various internships programs for individuals who seek to acquire skills in video production during their participation in community media. These internships are not compensated, however, interns shall gain valuable skills in the areas of video production which may help in earning educational credits. It provides internships on studio production, video editing, graphic design, and mobile unit video production and tries to cover essential aspects of the same. CCTV also provides opportunities to sponsor events in their community by means of broadcast on CCTV channels. It is one of the most effective and money-generating programs conducted by the CCTV.