Full Form of CBI:
Central Bureau of Investigation
CBI Full Form is Central Bureau of Investigation. CBI is a premier investigative agency in the India which is characterized as an elite organization that is responsible for handling keys issues involved in the police system and economy of the nation. The organization falls within the jurisdiction of the Indian government.
The agency is engaged in investigating criminal matters and is considered as the Interpol of the country. The agency was established in the year 1941 under the name of Special Police Establishment and was originally tasked with domestic security. In the year 1963, the organization was renamed into Central Bureau of Investigative. The motto of the agency is “industry, impartiality, Integrity”.
The agency is headquartered is in the capital city of the country, New Delhi but has established several field offices situated in main cities of the country. The Department of Personnel and Training of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances, and Pensions, under the aegis of the Union Minister of the Government of India, is the controlling authority of the CBI. The agency makes a report to the Prime Minister of India directly.
CBI is regarded to be based on the premier investigative agency of the United States of America, Federal Bureau of America (abbreviated as FBI). The functions and powers discharged by the CBI are restricted to the limits prescribed in several Acts, particularly the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946. The agency is currently headed by IPS officer, Anil Kumar Sinha.
Now that we have briefly dealt with introductory aspects of CBI, it is important to explore some other facets of the same, which will give a clearer picture about one of the biggest investigative agencies in the country. Here are five things you must know about CBI:
History behind the development of CBI
The CBI has its historical origins in the Delhi Special Police Establishment, which was constituted in the year 1941. The functions discharged by the Delhi Special Police Establishment pertained to the investigation of cases relating to corruption and bribery in the War and Supply Department of the then government of India.
The establishment was founded during World War II and was headquartered in Lahore. Khan Bahadur Qurban Ali Khan was the superintendent of the establishment. With the aim of providing a well-founded framework of an investigative agency, the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 was enacted, which eventually gave birth to CBI. In the year 1963, the establishment was renamed into Central Bureau of India vide a resolution passed by the then Home Ministry.
CBI started with a limited scope but the efforts of judicial courts in the country, the scope of CBI has been expanded to cover areas such as kidnapping, murder, and terrorism. In the year 1987, the agency was revamped and divided into two separate divisions, namely: the Special Crimes Division and the Anti-Corruption Division. D.P. Kohli, former Inspector-General of Police, was the visionary of the CBI and has envisioned a credible and independent investigative agency at par with international investigative agencies.
Organizational structure of the CBI
The organizational structure of the CBI needs proper elucidation. The organization comprises a Director, who heads the agency; and an IPS officer who belongs to the Director General of Police rank. The director of the agency is appointed on the basis of the Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003 and the tenure is two years.
The organization is staffed by the IPS and IRS officers which include Special Director, Deputy Inspector General of Police, Additional Director, Superintendent of Police, Senior Superintendent of Police, Deputy Superintendent of Police, Additional Superintendent of Police, Head Constable, etc.
All these are appointed through the SSC examination or deputation from IT department or Police. The powers and functions of the CBI are under the control of three ministries and 2 constitutional bodies, namely: Law and Justice Ministry, Ministry of Home Affairs, DoPT, Union Public Service Commission, and finally, the Central Vigilance Commission.
Selection committee of CBI
The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 was amended to enable the establishment of a selection committee, which shall be responsible for the appointment of the CBI’s director. The following persons comprise CBI: the Prime Minister, who is the chairperson of the committee; Leader of Opposition, who is a member of the committee; and Chief Justice of India or any Supreme Court Judge that the Chief Justice of India recommends as the member of the committee.
In the appointment of the new director, the opinion of the outgoing director is given due weight. Before the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013, under which the aforementioned selection committee is constituted, the Central Vigilance Commissioner was possessed with the power to appoint the director.
Jurisdiction and Powers of the CBI
The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 is the instrumental enactment from which the CBI derives its functions, powers, duties, and jurisdiction. The central government is empowered to expand or restrict the powers and functions of the CBI. Under the Act aforementioned, the CBI is empowered to conduct an investigation only when the central government notifies in this respect.
The CBI may conduct an investigation in matters relating to offenses alleged against the Union Government employees; matters involving financial issues of the Union Government; matters relating to embezzlement in Union services, international cases, etc. The judicial courts of the country, the High Courts and the Supreme Court of India, are empowered to order the agency to conduct an investigation into offenses that are committed against the State. The court, however, has cautioned that the exercise of this power is extraordinary in nature and must be utilized when in dire need.
Scandalous history of CBI
CBI was conceptualized with a noble aim of protecting the interests of the State. However, the agency has been embroiled in several controversies that have greatly tainted the repute of the agency. The extent is such that the judiciary is emphasizing upon the independence of the agency from Executive control. The agency is extremely susceptible to political interferences and this is palpable from many cases that have emerged in the recent past.
In the year 2006, the Bofors scandal emerged and created a great buzz. In this scandal, it was found that the accounts of the Italian businessman named Ottavio Quattrocchi were surreptitiously unfrozen. Ottaviao was one of the main accused in the 1986 Bofors scandal during the regime of Rajiv Gandhi. The problem was that CBI was the main investigative agency. The scandal was a blot on the premier agency of the country.
The infamous Priyadarshini Mattoo case wherein the accused had allegedly murdered a law student and was eventually acquitted. The case highlighted intentional inaction on the part of the CBI. The case resulted in huge public outcry because of the indecisiveness and palpable incompetence of the CBI.
In the 2G spectrum scam, the CBI came under fire when it failed to conduct investigation expeditiously. The Supreme Court castigated the tardy attitude of CBI in this regard. In this scam, the 2G spectrums were allotted to the corporation at low prices by means of corrupt practices. Thus, CBI has failed to discharge many of its noble duties effectively and has attracted much negative publicity in the public.
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