ASIC Full Form is Application Specific Integrated Circuit. An application-specific integrated circuit is a kind of integrated circuit customized for a specific use, and not for general-purpose use. An ASIC improves speed as its main function is to perform a particular task given as compared to the programmable logic device or a standard integrated logic circuit.
As ASIC can be customized as per the need of the user one can design it small in order to ensure low electricity consumption. A major drawback of this circuit is that it can be expensive to design a customized circuit especially if only a few units are needed. An ASIC is found in most of the electronic devices and its use can range from image to sound conversion. As all ASICs are custom-made and available only with the company that designed them.
The three different categories of ASICS are as follows: (1). Full-Custom ASICS: The circuit is customized especially for a specific application. The ultimate purpose of the circuit is decided by the designer. All the layers of this integrated circuit are fully defined to avoid any modification during manufacturing. (2). Semi-Custom ASICs: The circuit is customized partly to perform different functions of an application. The ASICS allows modification if any during manufacturing. (3). Platform ASICs: The circuit is designed & manufactured from a defined set of methodologies and specifications. The cost of manufacturing Platform ASICs is relatively low. Platform ASICs are made up of predefined platform slices which are pre-manufactured logics for the entire system. The pre-manufactured material reduces development costs for the circuits.